Sodium

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Sodium,  11Na
Na (Sodium).jpg
Sodium Spectra.jpg
Spectral lines o sodium
General properties
Name, seembol sodium, Na
Appearance sillery white metallic
Pronunciation /ˈsdiəm/ SOH-dee-əm
Sodium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)
Li

Na

K
neonsodiummagnesium
Atomic nummer (Z) 11
Group, block group 1 (alkali metals), s-block
Period period 3
Element category   alkali metal
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 22.98976928(2)
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s1
per shell
2,8,1
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 370.944 K ​(97.794 °C, ​208.029 °F)
Bylin pynt 1156.090 K ​(882.940 °C, ​1621.292 °F)
Density near r.t. 0.968 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 0.927 g/cm3
Creetical pynt (extrapolatit)
2573 K, 35 MPa
Heat o fusion 2.60 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 97.42 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 28.230 J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 554 617 697 802 946 1153
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 1, −1 ​strangly basic oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 0.93
Ionisation energies
(mair)
Atomic radius empirical: 186 pm
Covalent radius 166±9 pm
Van der Waals radius 227 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structur body-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structur for sodium
Speed o soond thin rod 3200 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 71 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 142 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 47.7 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[1]
Young's modulus 10 GPa
Shear modulus 3.3 GPa
Bulk modulus 6.3 GPa
Mohs haurdness 0.5
Brinell haurdness 0.69 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-23-5
History
Discovery Humphry Davy (1807)
First isolation Humphry Davy (1807)
Maist stable isotopes o sodium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
22Na trace 2.602 y β+γ 0.5454 22Ne*
1.27453(2)[2] 22Ne
εγ - 22Ne*
1.27453(2) 22Ne
β+ 1.8200 22Ne
23Na 100% 23Na is stable wi 12 neutrons
* = excited state
· references

Sodium is a chemical element wi the seembol Na (frae Laitin: natrium) an atomic nummer 11. It is a saft, siller-white, heichly reactive metal an is a member o the alkali metals; its anly stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal daes nae occur in naitur, but instead must be prepared frae its compoonds; it wis first isolatit bi Humphry Davy in 1807 bi the electrolysis o sodium hydroxide. Sodium is the saxt maist abundant element in the Yird's crust, an exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars, sodalite an rock salt. Mony sauts o sodium are heichly watter-soluble, an thair sodium haes been leached bi the action o watter so that chloride an sodium (NaCl) are the maist common dissolved elements bi wicht in the Yird's bodies o oceanic watter.

Sodium wis first isolatit bi Humphry Davy in 1807 bi the electrolysis o sodium hydroxide. Amang mony ither uisefu sodium compoonds, sodium hydroxide is uised in saip manufactur, an sodium chloride (edible saut) is a de-icin augent an a nutrient for ainimals includin humans.

Sodium is an essential element for aw ainimals an some plants. Sodium ions are the major cation in the extracellular fluid (ECF) an as such are the major contreibutor tae the ECF osmotic pressur an ECF compartment vollum. Loss o watter frae the ECF compartment increases the sodium concentration, a condeetion cried hypernatremia. Isotonic loss o watter an sodium frae the ECF compairtment decreases the size o that compartment in a condeetion cried ECF hypovolemia.

Bi means o the sodium-potassium pump, leevin human cells pump three sodium ions oot o the cell in exchynge for twa potassium ions pumped in; comparin ion concentrations athort the cell membrane, inside tae ootside, potassium meisurs aboot 40:1, an sodium, aboot 1:10. In nerve cells, the electrical chairge athort the cell membrane enables transmeession o the nerve impulse—an action potential—when the chairge is dissipatit; sodium plays a key role in that activity.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  2. Endt, P. M. (1990). "Energy levels of A = 21–44 nuclei (VII)". Nuclear Physics A. 521: 1–400. Bibcode:1990NuPhA.521....1E. doi:10.1016/0375-9474(90)90598-G.