Sodium

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Sodium,  11Na
Na (Sodium).jpg
General properties
Appearance sillery white metallic
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 22.98976928(2)
Sodium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Li

Na

K
neonsodiummagnesium
Atomic nummer (Z) 11
Group group 1 (alkali metals)
Period period 3
Element category   alkali metal
Block s-block
Electron confeeguration [Ne] 3s1
Electrons per shell
2,8,1
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 370.944 K ​(97.794 °C, ​208.029 °F)
Bylin pynt 1156.090 K ​(882.940 °C, ​1621.292 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 0.968 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 0.927 g/cm3
Creetical pynt (extrapolatit)
2573 K, 35 MPa
Heat o fusion 2.60 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 97.42 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 28.230 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 554 617 697 802 946 1153
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 1, −1 ​strangly basic oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 0.93
Ionisation energies
Atomic radius empirical: 186 pm
Covalent radius 166±9 pm
Van der Waals radius 227 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Creestal structurbody-centred cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic creestal structur for sodium
Speed o soond thin rod 3200 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 71 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 142 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 47.7 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[1]
Young's modulus 10 GPa
Shear modulus 3.3 GPa
Bouk modulus 6.3 GPa
Mohs haurdness 0.5
Brinell haurdness 0.69 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-23-5
History
Diskivery Humphry Davy (1807)
First isolation Humphry Davy (1807)
Main isotopes o sodium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
22Na trace 2.602 y β+γ 0.5454 22Ne*
1.27453(2)[2] 22Ne
εγ - 22Ne*
1.27453(2) 22Ne
β+ 1.8200 22Ne
23Na 100% stable
* = excited state
| references | in Wikidata

Sodium is a chemical element wi the seembol Na (frae Laitin: natrium) an atomic nummer 11. It is a saft, siller-white, heichly reactive metal an is a member o the alkali metals; its anly stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal daes nae occur in naitur, but instead must be prepared frae its compoonds; it wis first isolatit bi Humphry Davy in 1807 bi the electrolysis o sodium hydroxide. Sodium is the saxt maist abundant element in the Yird's crust, an exists in numerous meenerals sic as feldspars, sodalite an rock salt. Mony sauts o sodium are heichly watter-soluble, an thair sodium haes been leached bi the action o watter sae that chloride an sodium (NaCl) are the maist common dissolved elements bi wicht in the Yird's bodies o oceanic watter.

Sodium wis first isolatit bi Humphry Davy in 1807 bi the electrolysis o sodium hydroxide. Amang mony ither uisefu sodium compoonds, sodium hydroxide is uised in saip manufactur, an sodium chloride (edible saut) is a de-icin augent an a nutrient for ainimals includin humans.

Sodium is an essential element for aw ainimals an some plants. Sodium ions are the major cation in the extracellular fluid (ECF) an as sic are the major contreibutor tae the ECF osmotic pressur an ECF compartment vollum. Loss o watter frae the ECF compartment increases the sodium concentration, a condeetion cried hypernatremia. Isotonic loss o watter an sodium frae the ECF compairtment decreases the size o that compartment in a condeetion cried ECF hypovolemia.

Bi means o the sodium-potassium pump, leevin human cells pump three sodium ions oot o the cell in exchynge for twa potassium ions pumped in; comparin ion concentrations athort the cell membrane, inside tae ootside, potassium meisurs aboot 40:1, an sodium, aboot 1:10. In nerve cells, the electrical chairge athort the cell membrane enables transmeession o the nerve impulse—an action potential—when the chairge is dissipatit; sodium plays a key role in that activity.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  2. Endt, P. M. (1990). "Energy levels of A = 21–44 nuclei (VII)". Nuclear Physics A. 521: 1–400. Bibcode:1990NuPhA.521....1E. doi:10.1016/0375-9474(90)90598-G.