Sodium hydroxide

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Sodium hydroxide
Unit cell, spacefill model of sodium hydroxide
Sample of sodium hydroxide as pellets in a watchglass
Preferred IUPAC name
Sodium hydroxide[3]
Seestematic IUPAC name
Sodium oxidanide
Ither names
Caustic soda

Lye [1][2]
White caustic

Sodium hydrate[3]
3D model (JSmol)
EC Nummer 215-185-5
Gmelin Reference 68430
MeSH Sodium+Hydroxide
RTECS nummer WB4900000
UN nummer 1823
Molar mass 39.9971 g mol−1
Appearance White, waxy, opaque crystals
Odour odorless
Density 2.13 g/cm3
Meltin pynt 318 °C (604 °F; 591 K)
Bylin pynt 1,388 °C (2,530 °F; 1,661 K)
111 g/100 mL (at 20 °C)
Solubility in methanol 23.8 g/100 mL
Solubility in ethanol <<13.9 g/100 mL
Vapour pressur <2.4 kPa (at 20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 13
Refractive index (nD) 1.3576
GHS pictograms The corrosion pictogram in the Globally Harmonized Seestem o Classification an Labelling o Chemicals (GHS)
NFPA 704
Relatit compoonds
Ither anions
Sodium hydrosulfide
Ither cations
Caesium hydroxide

Lithium hydroxide
Potassium hydroxide
Rubidium hydroxide

Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Sodium hydroxide, kent as caustic soda an aw,[1][2] or lye, is an inorganic compoond wi the chemical formula NaOH (written as NaHO an aw). It is a white solit, an is a heichly caustic metallic base an alkali saut. It is available in pellets, flakes, granules, an as prepared solutions at a nummer o different concentrations.[4] Sodium hydroxide furms an approximately 50% (bi wecht) saturatit solution wi watter.[5]

Sodium hydroxide is soluble in watter, ethanol an methanol. This alkali is deliquescent an readily absorbs moistur an carbon dioxide in air.

Sodium hydroxide is uised in mony industries, maistly as a strang chemical base in the manufacture o pulp an paper, textiles, drinkin watter, saips an detergents an as a drain cleaner. Warldwide production in 2004 wis approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand wis 51 million tonnes.[6]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. a b "Material Safety Datasheet" (PDF). Archived frae the original (PDF) on 28 Februar 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  2. a b "Material Safety Datasheet 2" (PDF). Archived frae the original (PDF) on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  3. a b "Sodium Hydroxide - Compound Summary". Retrieved 12 Juin 2012.
  6. Cetin Kurt, Jürgen Bittner (2005), "Sodium Hydroxide", Ullmann's Encyclopedia o Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a24_345.pub2