Carbon dioxide

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Carbon dioxide
CAS number 124-38-9 YesY
PubChem 280
ChemSpider 274 YesY
UNII 142M471B3J YesY
EC nummer 204-696-9
UN nummer 1013
KEGG D00004 YesY
MeSH Carbon+dioxide
ChEBI CHEBI:16526 YesY
RTECS nummer FF6400000
ATC code V03AN02
Beilstein Reference 1900390
Gmelin Reference 989
3DMet B01131
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Image 2
Molecular formula CO2
Molar mass 44.01 g mol−1
Appearance Colorless gas
Odor Odorless
Density 1562 kg/m3 (solid at 1 atm an −78.5 °C)
770 kg/m3 (liquid at 56 atm an 20 °C)
1.977 kg/m3 (gas at 1 atm an 0 °C)
Meltin pynt

-78 °C, 194.7 K, -109 °F (subl.)

Boilin pynt

-57 °C, 216.6 K, -70 °F (at 5.185 bar)

Solubility in water 1.45 g/L at 25 °C, 100 kPa
Vapor pressure 5.73 MPa (20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 6.35, 10.33
Refractive index (nD) 1.1120
Viscosity 0.07 cP at −78.5 °C
Dipole moment 0 D
Crystal structur trigonal
Molecular shape linear
Std enthalpy o
−393.5 kJ·mol−1
Staundart molar
214 J·mol−1·K−1
Speceefic heat capacity, C 37.135 J/K mol
MSDS Sigma-Aldrich
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
Related compounds
Ither anions Carbon disulfide
Carbon diselenide
Ither cations Silicon dioxide
Germanium dioxide
Tin dioxide
Lead dioxide
Relatit carbon oxides Carbon monoxide
Carbon suboxide
Dicarbon monoxide
Carbon trioxide
Relatit compoonds Carbonic acid
Carbonyl sulfide
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a naiturally occurrin chemical compound componed o twa oxygen atoms covalently bonded tae a single carbon atom. It is a gas at staundart temperatur an pressur an exists in Yird's atmosphere in this state, as a trace gas at a concentration o 0.039 per cent bi volume.[1]

As pairt o the carbon cycle, plants, algae, an cyanobacteria uise licht energy tae photosynthesize carbohydrate frae carbon dioxide an watter, wi oxygen produced as a waste product.[2] However, photosynthesis cannae occur in darkness an at nicht some carbon dioxide is produced bi plants durin respiration.[3] Carbon dioxide is produced bi combustion o coal or hydrocarbons, the fermentation o succars in beer an winemakin an bi respiration o aw livin organisms. It is exhaled in the breath o humans an land ainimals. It is emitted frae volcanoes, het springs, geysers an ither places whaur the yird's crust is thin an is freed frae carbonate rocks bi dissolution. CO2 is an aa foond in lochs, at depth unner the sea an commingled wi ile an gas deposits.[4]

The environmental effects o carbon dioxide are o signeeficant interest. Carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas, absorbin heat radiation frae Yird's surface which itherwise would hae left the atmosphere. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary soorce o carbon in life on Yird an its concentration in Yird's pre-industrial atmosphere syne late in the Precambrian eon wis regulatit bi photosynthetic organisms. Burnin o carbon-based fuels syne the industrial revolution haes rapidly increased concentrations o atmospheric carbon dioxide, increasin the rate o global wairmin an causin anthropogenic climate chynge. It is an aa a major soorce o ocean acidification syne it dissolves in watter tae furm carbonic acid,[5] which is a weak acid as its ionization in watter is incomplete.

+ H
Template:Eqm H

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) – Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), Trends in Carbon Dioxide Values given are dry air mole fractions expressed in parts per million (ppm). For an ideal gas mixture this is equivalent to parts per million by volume (ppmv).
  2. Donald G. Kaufman; Cecilia M. Franz (1996). Biosphere 2000: protecting our global environment. Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-7872-0460-0. Retrieved 11 October 2011. 
  3. Food Factories. Retrieved on 2011-10-10.
  4. "General Properties and Uses of Carbon Dioxide, Good Plant Design and Operation for Onshore Carbon Capture Installations and Onshore Pipelines". Energy Institute. Retrieved 2012-03-14. 
  5. National Research Council. "Summary." Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010. 1. Print.

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