Carbon dioxide

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Carbon dioxide
Structural formula o carbon dioxide wi bond length
Ball-an-stick model o carbon dioxide
Space-fillin model o carbon dioxide
Ither names
Carbonic acid gas
Carbonic anhydride
Carbonic oxide
Carbon oxide
Carbon(IV) oxide
Dry ice (solid phase)
Jmol-3D images Image
3DMet {{{value}}}
Beilstein Reference 1900390
ChEBI CHEBI:16526 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL1231871 N
ChemSpider 274 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.004.271
EC Nummer 204-696-9
E nummer E290 (preservatives)
Gmelin Reference 989
KEGG D00004 YesY
MeSH Carbon+dioxide
RTECS nummer FF6400000
UNII 142M471B3J YesY
UN nummer 1013
Molar mass 44.01 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless gas
Odour Odorless
Density 1562 kg/m3 (solid at 1 atm an −78.5 °C)
770 kg/m3 (liquid at 56 atm an 20 °C)
1.977 kg/m3 (gas at 1 atm an 0 °C)
Meltin pynt −78.5 °C; −109.2 °F; 194.7 K
Bylin pynt −56.6 °C; −69.8 °F; 216.6 K
1.45 g/L at 25 °C, 100 kPa
Vapour pressur 5.73 MPa (20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 6.35, 10.33
Refractive index (nD) 1.1120
Viscosity 0.07 cP at −78.5 °C
Dipole moment 0 D
Crystal structur trigonal
Molecular shape linear
Speceefic heat capacity, C 37.135 J/K mol
Staundart molar
214 J·mol−1·K−1
Std enthalpy o
−393.5 kJ·mol−1
Safety data sheet Sigma-Aldrich
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will nae burn. E.g., watter Health code 2: Intense or continued but nae chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even unner fire exposur condeetions, an is nae reactive wi watter. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Relatit compoonds
Ither anions
Carbon disulfide
Carbon diselenide
Ither cations
Silicon dioxide
Germanium dioxide
Tin dioxide
Lead dioxide
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (whit is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a naiturally occurrin chemical compound componed o twa oxygen atoms covalently bonded tae a single carbon atom. It is a gas at staundart temperatur an pressur an exists in Yird's atmosphere in this state, as a trace gas at a concentration o 0.039 per cent bi volume.[1]

As pairt o the carbon cycle, plants, algae, an cyanobacteria uise licht energy tae photosynthesize carbohydrate frae carbon dioxide an watter, wi oxygen produced as a waste product.[2] However, photosynthesis cannae occur in darkness an at nicht some carbon dioxide is produced bi plants durin respiration.[3] Carbon dioxide is produced bi combustion o coal or hydrocarbons, the fermentation o succars in beer an winemakin an bi respiration o aw livin organisms. It is exhaled in the breath o humans an land ainimals. It is emittit frae volcanoes, het springs, geysers an ither places whaur the yird's crust is thin an is freed frae carbonate rocks bi dissolution. CO2 is an aa foond in lochs, at depth unner the sea an commingled wi ile an gas deposits.[4]

The environmental effects o carbon dioxide are o signeeficant interest. Carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas, absorbin heat radiation frae Yird's surface whilk itherwise would hae left the atmosphere. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary soorce o carbon in life on Yird an its concentration in Yird's pre-industrial atmosphere syne late in the Precambrian eon wis regulatit bi photosynthetic organisms. Burnin o carbon-based fuels syne the industrial revolution haes rapidly increased concentrations o atmospheric carbon dioxide, increasin the rate o global wairmin an causin anthropogenic climate chynge. It is an aa a major soorce o ocean acidification syne it dissolves in watter tae furm carbonic acid,[5] whilk is a weak acid as its ionization in watter is incomplete.

+ H

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) – Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), Trends in Carbon Dioxide Values gien are dry air mole fractions expressed in parts per million (ppm). For an ideal gas mixture this is equivalent to parts per million by volume (ppmv).
  2. Donald G. Kaufman; Cecilia M. Franz (1996). Biosphere 2000: protecting our global environment. Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-7872-0460-0. Retrieved 11 October 2011. 
  3. Food Factories. Retrieved on 2011-10-10.
  4. "General Properties and Uses of Carbon Dioxide, Good Plant Design and Operation for Onshore Carbon Capture Installations and Onshore Pipelines". Energy Institute. Retrieved 2012-03-14. 
  5. National Research Council. "Summary." Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010. 1. Print.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]