Beryllium

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Beryllium,  4Be
Be-140g.jpg
General properties
Name, seembol beryllium, Be
Appearance white-gray metallic
Pronunciation /bəˈrɪliəm/
bə-RIL-ee-əm
Beryllium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Be

Mg
lithiumberylliumboron
Atomic nummer (Z) 4
Group, block group 2 (alkaline yird metals), s-block
Period period 2
Element category   alkaline yird metal
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 9.0121831(5)[1]
Electron configuration [He] 2s2
per shell
2, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 1560 K ​(1287 °C, ​2349 °F)
Bylin pynt 3243 K ​(2970 °C, ​5378 °F)
Density near r.t. 1.85 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 1.690 g/cm3
Creetical pynt 5205 K,  MPa (extrapolatit)
Heat o fusion 12.2 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 292 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 16.443 J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1462 1608 1791 2023 2327 2742
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +2, +1[2] ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.57
Ionisation energies 1st: 899.5 kJ/mol
2nt: 1757.1 kJ/mol
3rd: 14848.7 kJ/mol
(mair)
Atomic radius empirical: 112 pm
Covalent radius 96±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 153 pm
Miscellanea
Creestal structur hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structur for beryllium
Speed o soond thin rod 12890 m/s (at r.t.)[3]
Thermal expansion 11.3 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 200 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 36 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic
Young's modulus 287 GPa
Shear modulus 132 GPa
Bouk modulus 130 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.032
Mohs haurdness 5.5
Vickers haurdness 1670 MPa
Brinell haurdness 590–1320 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-41-7
History
Diskivery Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (1797)
First isolation Friedrich Wöhler & Antoine Bussy (1828)
Maist stable isotopes o beryllium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
7Be trace 53.12 d ε 0.862 7Li
γ 0.477
9Be 100% 9Be is stable wi 5 neutrons
10Be trace 1.36×106 y β 0.556 10B
· references

Beryllium is a chemical element wi seembol Be an atomic nummer 4. It is creaut throu stellar nucleosynthesis an is a relatively rare element in the universe. It is a divalent element that occurs naiturally anerly in combination wi ither elements an minerals. Notable gemstanes whilk contain beryllium include beryl (aquamarine, emerald) an chrysoberyl. As a free element, it is a steel-gray, strang, lichtwicht an brickle alkaline yird metal.

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