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Silicon,  14Si
Silicon Spectra.jpg
Spectral lines o Silicon
General properties
Name, seembol silicon, Si
Pronunciation /ˈsɪlɨkən/ SIL-ə-kən or /ˈsɪlɨkɒn/ SIL-ə-kon
Appearance crystalline, reflective wi bluish-tinged faces
Silicon in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Iron (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Copper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Silver (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercury (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Lead (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer 14
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 28.085(1)
Element category   metalloid
Group, block group 14 (carbon group), p-block
Period period 3
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p2
per shell
2, 8, 4
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 1687 K ​(1414 °C, ​2577 °F)
Boilin pynt 3538 K ​(3265 °C, ​5909 °F)
Density near r.t. 2.3290 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 2.57 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 50.21 kJ/mol
Heat o 359 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 19.789 J/(mol·K)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1908 2102 2339 2636 3021 3537
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1[1] -1, -2, -3, -4amphoteric oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.90
Atomic radius empirical: 111 pm
Covalent radius 111 pm
Van der Waals radius 210 pm
Crystal structur diamond cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for silicon
Speed o soond thin rod 8433 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 2.6 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 149 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 103[2] Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic[3]
Young's modulus 130-188[4] GPa
Shear modulus 51-80[4] GPa
Bulk modulus 97.6[4] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.064 - 0.28[4]
Mohs haurdness 7
CAS Registry Nummer 7440-21-3
Prediction Antoine Lavoisier (1787)
Discovery Jöns Jacob Berzelius[5][6] (1823)
First isolation Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1823)
Named by Thomas Thomson (1817)
Maist stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o silicon
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
28Si 92.23% 28Si is stable wi 14 neutrons
29Si 4.67% 29Si is stable wi 15 neutrons
30Si 3.1% 30Si is stable wi 16 neutrons
32Si trace 153 y β 13.020 32P
· references

Silicon, a tetravalent metalloid, is a chemical element wi the seembol Si an atomic nummer 14. It is less reactive nor its chemical analog carbon, the nonmetal directly abuin it in the periodic table, but mair reactive nor germanium, the metalloid directly ablo it in the table. Controversy aboot silicon's character dates tae its discovery; it wis first prepared an characterized in pure furm in 1823. In 1808, it wis given the name silicium (frae Laitin: silex, haird stane or flint), wi an -ium wird-endin tae suggest a metal, a name which the element retains in several non-Inglis leids. However, its final Inglis name, first suggestit in 1817, reflects the mair pheesically seemilar elements carbon an boron.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Ram, R. S. et al. (1998). "Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of the A2D–X2P Transition of SiH and SiD" (PDF). J. Mol. Spectr. 190: 341–352. PMID 9668026. 
  2. Physical Properties of Silicon. New Semiconductor Materials. Characteristics and Properties. Ioffe Institute
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 [1] Hopcroft, et al., "What is the Young's Modulus of Silicon?" IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2010
  5. Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements: XII. Other elements isolated with the aid of potassium and sodium: beryllium, boron, silicon, and aluminum". Journal of Chemical Education 9 (8): 1386–1412. Bibcode:1932JChEd...9.1386W. doi:10.1021/ed009p1386. 
  6. Voronkov, M. G. (2007). "Silicon era". Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry 80 (12): 2190. doi:10.1134/S1070427207120397.