Boron

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Boron,  5B
Boron mNACTEC.jpg
General properties
Name, seembol boron, B
Pronunciation /ˈbɔərɒn/
Appearance black-broun
Boron in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Iron (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Copper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Silver (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercury (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Lead (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)
-

B

Al
berylliumboroncarbon
Atomic nummer 5
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 10.81(1)
Element category   metalloid
Group, block group 13, p-block
Period period 2
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p1
per shell
2, 3
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 2349 K ​(2076 °C, ​3769 °F)
Boilin pynt 4200 K ​(3927 °C, ​7101 °F)
Density when liquid, at m.p. 2.08 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 50.2 kJ/mol
Heat o 480 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 11.087 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2348 2562 2822 3141 3545 4072
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1[1] ​mildly acidic oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.04
energies
(mair)
Atomic radius empirical: 90 pm
Covalent radius 84±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 192 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structur rhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for boron
Speed o soond thin rod 16,200 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion (β form) 5–7[2] µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 27.4 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity ~106  Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic[3]
Mohs haurdness ~9.5
CAS Registry Nummer 7440-42-8
History
Discovery Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac an Louis Jacques Thénard[4] (30 June 1808)
First isolation Humphry Davy[5] (9 Julie 1808)
Maist stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o boron
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
10B 19.9(7)% 10B is stable wi 5 neutrons[6]
11B 80.1(7)% 11B is stable wi 6 neutrons[6]
10B content may be as low as 19.1% and as high as 20.3% in natural samples. 11B is the remainder in such cases.[7]
· references

Boron is a chemical element wi seembol B an atomic nummer 5. Acause boron is produced entirely bi cosmic ray spallation an nae bi stellar nucleosynthesis,[8] it is a law-abundance element in baith the solar seestem an the Yird's crust. Boron is concentratit on Yird bi the watter-solubility o its mair common naiturally occurrin compoonds, the borate minerals. These are mined industrially as evaporites, such as borax an kernite.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Zhang, K.Q.; Guo, B.; Braun, V.; Dulick, M.; Bernath, P.F. (1995). "Infrared Emission Spectroscopy of BF and AIF". J. Molecular Spectroscopy 170: 82. Bibcode:1995JMoSp.170...82Z. doi:10.1006/jmsp.1995.1058. 
  2. Holcombe Jr., C. E.; Smith, D. D.; Lorc, J. D.; Duerlesen, W. K.; Carpenter; D. A. (October 1973). "Physical-Chemical Properties of beta-Rhombohedral Boron". High Temp. Sci. 5 (5): 349–57. 
  3. Lide, David R. (ed.) (2000). Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. CRC press. ISBN 0849304814. 
  4. Gay Lussac, J.L. and Thenard, L.J. (1808) "Sur la décomposition et la recomposition de l'acide boracique," Annales de chimie [later: Annales de chemie et de physique], vol. 68, pp. 169–174.
  5. Davy H (1809). "An account of some new analytical researches on the nature of certain bodies, particularly the alkalies, phosphorus, sulphur, carbonaceous matter, and the acids hitherto undecomposed: with some general observations on chemical theory". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 99: 33–104. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions for All Elements". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 2008-09-21. 
  7. Szegedi, S.; Váradi, M.; Buczkó, Cs. M.; Várnagy, M.; Sztaricskai, T. (1990). "Determination of boron in glass by neutron transmission method". Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry Letters 146 (3): 177. doi:10.1007/BF02165219. 
  8. "Q & A: Where does the element Boron come from?". physics.illinois.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-04.