Rubidium

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Rubidium,  37Rb
Rb5.JPG
General properties
Appearance grey white
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 85.4678(3)
Rubidium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
K

Rb

Cs
kryptonrubidiumstrontium
Atomic nummer (Z) 37
Group group 1 (alkali metals)
Period period 5
Element category   alkali metal
Block s-block
Electron confeeguration [Kr] 5s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 8, 1
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 312.45 K ​(39.30 °C, ​102.74 °F)
Bylin pynt 961 K ​(688 °C, ​1270 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 1.532 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 1.46 g/cm3
Treeple pynt 312.41 K, ​? kPa[1]
Creetical pynt 2093 K, 16 MPa (extrapolatit)[1]
Heat o fusion 2.19 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 69 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 31.060 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 434 486 552 641 769 958
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +1, −1 ​(a strangly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 0.82
Ionisation energies
  • 1st: 403 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2632.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3859.4 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 248 pm
Covalent radius 220±9 pm
Van der Waals radius 303 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Creestal structurbody-centred cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic creestal structur for rubidium
Speed o soond thin rod 1300 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 90 µm/(m·K)[2] (at r.t.)
Thermal conductivity 58.2 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 128 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[3]
Young's modulus 2.4 GPa
Bouk modulus 2.5 GPa
Mohs haurdness 0.3
Brinell haurdness 0.216 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-17-7
History
Diskivery Robert Bunsen an Gustav Kirchhoff (1861)
First isolation George de Hevesy
Main isotopes o rubidium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
83Rb syn 86.2 d ε 83Kr
γ
84Rb syn 32.9 d ε 84Kr
β+ 84Kr
γ
β 84Sr
85Rb 72.17% stable
86Rb syn 18.65 d β 86Sr
γ
87Rb 27.83% 4.9×1010 y β 87Sr
| references | in Wikidata

Rubidium is a chemical element wi seembol Rb an atomic nummer 37. Rubidium is a saft, sillery-white metallic element o the alkali metal group, wi an atomic mass o 85.4678. Elemental rubidium is heichly reactive, wi properties seemilar tae those o ither alkali metals, sic as very rapid oxidation in air. Naitural rubidium is a mix o twa isotopes: 85Rb, the anly stable ane, constitutes 72% o it. The remainin 28% is the slichtly radioactive 87Rb wi a hauf-life o 49 billion years—mair nor three times langer than the estimatit age o the universe.

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