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Rubidium,  37Rb
General properties
Name, seembol rubidium, Rb
Appearance grey white
Pronunciation /rᵿˈbɪdiəm/
Rubidium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer (Z) 37
Group, block group 1 (alkali metals), s-block
Period period 5
Element category   alkali metal
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 85.4678(3)[1]
Electron configuration [Kr] 5s1
per shell
2, 8, 18, 8, 1
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 312.45 K ​(39.30 °C, ​102.74 °F)
Bylin pynt 961 K ​(688 °C, ​1270 °F)
Density near r.t. 1.532 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 1.46 g/cm3
Threeple pynt 312.41 K, ​? kPa[2]
Creetical pynt 2093 K, 16 MPa (extrapolatit)[2]
Heat o fusion 2.19 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 69 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 31.060 J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 434 486 552 641 769 958
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +1, −1 ​(a strangly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 0.82
Ionisation energies 1st: 403 kJ/mol
2nt: 2632.1 kJ/mol
3rd: 3859.4 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 248 pm
Covalent radius 220±9 pm
Van der Waals radius 303 pm
Creestal structur body-centred cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structur for rubidium
Speed o soond thin rod 1300 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 90 µm/(m·K)[3] (at r.t.)
Thermal conductivity 58.2 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 128 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[4]
Young's modulus 2.4 GPa
Bouk modulus 2.5 GPa
Mohs haurdness 0.3
Brinell haurdness 0.216 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-17-7
Diskivery Robert Bunsen an Gustav Kirchhoff (1861)
First isolation George de Hevesy
Maist stable isotopes o rubidium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
83Rb syn 86.2 d ε 83Kr
γ 0.52, 0.53,
84Rb syn 32.9 d ε 84Kr
β+ 1.66, 0.78 84Kr
γ 0.881
β 0.892 84Sr
85Rb 72.17% 85Rb is stable wi 48 neutrons
86Rb syn 18.65 d β 1.775 86Sr
γ 1.0767
87Rb 27.83% 4.9×1010 y β 0.283 87Sr
· references

Rubidium is a chemical element wi seembol Rb an atomic nummer 37. Rubidium is a saft, sillery-white metallic element o the alkali metal group, wi an atomic mass o 85.4678. Elemental rubidium is heichly reactive, wi properties seemilar tae those o ither alkali metals, sic as very rapid oxidation in air. Naitural rubidium is a mix o twa isotopes: 85Rb, the anly stable ane, constitutes 72% o it. The remainin 28% is the slichtly radioactive 87Rb wi a hauf-life o 49 billion years—mair nor three times langer than the estimatit age o the universe.

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