Phosphorus

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Phosphorus,  15P
PhosphComby.jpg
waxy white (yellae cut), reid (granules centre left, chunk centre richt), an violet phosphorus
General properties
Appearance colourless, waxy white, yellae, scarlet, reid, violet, black
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 30.973761998(5)
Phosphorus in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
N

P

As
siliconphosphorussulfur
Atomic nummer (Z) 15
Group group 15 (pnictogens)
Period period 3
Element category   polyatomic nonmetal
Block p-block
Electron confeeguration [Ne] 3s2 3p3
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 5
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Density (near r.t.) (white) 1.823, (red) ≈ 2.2 – 2.34, (violet) 2.36, (black) 2.69 g/cm3
Treeple pynt
(red) 862.7 K, 4367 kPa
Heat o fusion (white) 0.66 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation (white) 12.4 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity (white)
23.824 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur (white)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 279 307 342 388 453 549
Template:Engvar pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 455 489 529 576 635 704
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2[1], 1[2], −1, −2, −3 ​mildly acidic oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.19
Ionisation energies
Covalent radius 107±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 180 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Creestal structursimple triclinic
Simple triclinic creestal structur for phosphorus
Thermal conductivity (white) 0.236, (black) 12.1 W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderin (white, red, violet, black) diamagnetic[3]
Bouk modulus (white) 5, (reid) 11 GPa
CAS Nummer 7723-14-0 (reid)
12185-10-3 (white)
History
Diskivery Hennig Brand (1669)
Recognized as an element bi Antoine Lavoisier[4] (1777)
Main isotopes o phosphorus
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
31P 100% stable
32P syn 14.28 d β 32S
33P syn 25.3 d β 33S
| references | in Wikidata

Phosphorus is a nonmetallic chemical element wi seembol P an atomic nummer 15. A multivalent pnictogen, phosphorus as a mineral is almaist always present in its maximally oxidised state, as inorganic phosphate rocks. Elemental phosphorus exists in twa major forms—white phosphorus an reid phosphorus—but due tae its heich reactivity, phosphorus is never foond as a free element on Yird.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. webelements
  2. Ellis, Bobby D.; MacDonald, Charles L. B. (2006). "Phosphorus(I) Iodide: A Versatile Metathesis Reagent for the Synthesis of Low Oxidation State Phosphorus Compounds". Inorganic Chemistry. 45 (17): 6864–74. doi:10.1021/ic060186o. PMID 16903744. 
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  4. cf. "Memoir on Combustion in General" Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences 1777, 592–600. from Henry Marshall Leicester and Herbert S. Klickstein, A Source Book in Chemistry 1400–1900 (New York: McGraw Hill, 1952)