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Phosphorus,  15P
waxy white (yellae cut), reid (granules centre left, chunk centre richt), an violet phosphorus
General properties
Name, seembol phosphorus, P
Appearance colourless, waxy white, yellae, scarlet, reid, violet, black
Pronunciation /ˈfɒsfərəs/ FOS-fər-əs
Phosphorus in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer (Z) 15
Group, block group 15 (pnictogens), p-block
Period period 3
Element category   polyatomic nonmetal, sometimes considered a metalloid
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 30.973761998(5)
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p3
per shell
2, 8, 5
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Density near r.t. (white) 1.823, (red) ≈ 2.2 – 2.34, (violet) 2.36, (black) 2.69 g/cm3
Threeple pynt
(red) 862.7 K, 4367 kPa
Heat o fusion (white) 0.66 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation (white) 12.4 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity (white)
23.824 J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur (white)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 279 307 342 388 453 549
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 455 489 529 576 635 704
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2[1], 1[2], −1, −2, −3 ​mildly acidic oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.19
Ionisation energies
Covalent radius 107±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 180 pm
Creestal structur simple triclinic
Simple triclinic crystal structur for phosphorus
Thermal conductivity (white) 0.236, (black) 12.1 W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderin (white, red, violet, black) diamagnetic[3]
Bouk modulus (white) 5, (reid) 11 GPa
CAS Nummer 7723-14-0 (reid)
12185-10-3 (white)
Diskivery Hennig Brand (1669)
Recognized as an element bi Antoine Lavoisier[4] (1777)
Maist stable isotopes o phosphorus
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
31P 100% 31P is stable wi 16 neutrons
32P syn 14.28 d β 1.709 32S
33P syn 25.3 d β 0.249 33S
· references

Phosphorus is a nonmetallic chemical element wi seembol P an atomic nummer 15. A multivalent pnictogen, phosphorus as a mineral is almaist always present in its maximally oxidised state, as inorganic phosphate rocks. Elemental phosphorus exists in twa major forms—white phosphorus an reid phosphorus—but due tae its heich reactivity, phosphorus is never foond as a free element on Yird.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. webelements
  2. Ellis, Bobby D.; MacDonald, Charles L. B. (2006). "Phosphorus(I) Iodide: A Versatile Metathesis Reagent for the Synthesis of Low Oxidation State Phosphorus Compounds". Inorganic Chemistry. 45 (17): 6864–74. doi:10.1021/ic060186o. PMID 16903744. 
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  4. cf. "Memoir on Combustion in General" Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences 1777, 592–600. from Henry Marshall Leicester and Herbert S. Klickstein, A Source Book in Chemistry 1400–1900 (New York: McGraw Hill, 1952)