Chlorine

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Chlorine
17Cl
F

Cl

Br
sulfurchlorineargon
Appearance
pale yellae-green gas
General properties
Name, seembol, nummer chlorine, Cl, 17
Pronunciation /ˈklɔərn/ KLOHR-een
or /ˈklɔərɨn/ KLOHR-ən
Element category diatomic nonmetal
Group, period, block 17 (halogens), 3, p
Staundart atomic wicht 35.45(1)
Electron confeeguration [Ne] 3s2 3p5
2, 8, 7
Electron shells of chlorine (2, 8, 7)
History
Discovery Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1774)
First isolation Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1774)
Recognized as an element bi Humphry Davy (1808)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
3.2 g/L
Liquid density at b.p. 1.5625[1] g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 171.6 K, -101.5 °C, -150.7 °F
Boilin pynt 239.11 K, -34.04 °C, -29.27 °F
Creetical pynt 416.9 K, 7.991 MPa
Heat o fusion (Cl2) 6.406 kJ·mol−1
Heat o vaporization (Cl2) 20.41 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity (Cl2)
33.949 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 128 139 153 170 197 239
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1
(strangly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 3.16 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 1251.2 kJ·mol−1
2nt: 2298 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3822 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 102±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 175 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure orthorhombic
Chlorine has a orthorhombic crystal structure
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic[2]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) > 10 Ω·m
Thermal conductivity 8.9×10−3  W·m−1·K−1
Speed o soond (gas, 0 °C) 206 m·s−1
CAS registry nummer 7782-50-5
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o chlorine
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
35Cl 75.77% 35Cl is stable wi 18 neutrons
36Cl trace 3.01×105 y β 0.709 36Ar
ε - 36S
37Cl 24.23% 37Cl is stable wi 20 neutrons
· r

Chlorine is a chemical element wi seembol Cl an atomic nummer 17. Chlorine is in the halogen group (17) an is the seicont lichtest halogen efter fluorine. The element is a yellae-green gas unner staundart condeetions, whaur it furms diatomic molecules. It haes the heichest electron affinity an the third heichest electronegativity o aw the reactive elements; for this reason, chlorine is a strang oxidizin agent. Free chlorine is rare on Yird, an is uisually a result o direct or indirect oxidation bi oxygen.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Chlorine, Gas Encyclopaedia, Air Liquide
  2. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.