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Niobium,  41Nb
A daud o gray sheenin crystals wi hexagonal facettin
General properties
Name, seembol niobium, Nb
Appearance gray metallic, bluish whan oxidised
Pronunciation nəiˈobeəm
umwhile kəˈɫʌmbeəm
Niobium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer (Z) 41
Group, block group 5, d-block
Period period 5
Element category   transeetion metal
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 92.90637(2)
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d4 5s1
per shell
2, 8, 18, 12, 1
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 2750 K ​(2477 °C, ​4491 °F)
Bylin pynt 5017 K ​(4744 °C, ​8571 °F)
Density near r.t. 8.57 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 30 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 689.9 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.60 J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2942 3207 3524 3910 4393 5013
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, -1
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.6
Atomic radius empirical: 146 pm
Covalent radius 164±6 pm
Creestal structur body-centred cubic (bcc)
Cubic body-centered crystal structur for niobium
Speed o soond thin rod 3480 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 7.3 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity 53.7 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 152 n Ω·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic
Young's modulus 105 GPa
Shear modulus 38 GPa
Bouk modulus 170 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.40
Mohs haurdness 6.0
Vickers haurdness 1320 MPa
Brinell haurdness 736 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-03-1
Diskivery Charles Hatchett (1801)
First isolation Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand (1864)
Recognised as a distinct element by Heinrich Rose (1844)
Maist stable isotopes o niobium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
91Nb syn 6.8×102 y ε - 91Zr
91mNb syn 60.86 d IT 0.104e 91Nb
92Nb syn 10.15 d ε - 92Zr
γ 0.934 -
92Nb syn 3.47×107y ε - 92Zr
γ 0.561, 0.934 -
93Nb 100% - (SF) <0.943
93mNb syn 16.13 y IT 0.031e 93Nb
94Nb syn 2.03×104 y β 0.471 94Mo
γ 0.702, 0.871 -
95Nb syn 34.991 d β 0.159 95Mo
γ 0.765 -
95mNb syn 3.61 d IT 0.235 95Nb
Decay modes in parentheses are predicted, but hinna been observed yet
· references

Niobium, umwhile columbium, is a chemical element wi the seembol Nb (umwhile Cb) an atomic nummer 41. It is a saft, grey, ductile transeetion metal, whilk is aften foond in the pyrochlore mineral, the main commercial soorce for niobium, an columbite. The name comes frae Greek meethology: Niobe, dauchter o Tantalus.