Xenon

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Xenon, 54Xe
Template:Infobox element/symbol-to-top-image/alt
A xenon-filled dischairge tube glowin licht blue
Xenon
Pronunciation
Appearancecolourless gas, exhibitin a blue glow when placed in a heich voltage electric field
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Xe)131.293(6)[3]
Xenon in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Kr

Xe

Rn
iodinexenoncaesium
Atomic nummer (Z)54
Groupgroup 18 (noble gases)
Periodperiod 5
Blockp-block
Element category  Noble gas
Electron confeeguration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18, 8
Pheesical properties
Phase at STPgas
Meltin pynt161.40 K ​(-111.75 °C, ​-169.15 °F)
Bylin pynt165.051 K ​(-108.099 °C, ​-162.578 °F)
Density (at STP)5.894 g/L
whan liquid (at b.p.)3.057[4] g/cm3
Treeple pynt161.405 K, ​81.77[5] kPa
Creetical pynt289.733 K, 5.842[5] MPa
Heat o fusion2.27 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation12.64 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity5R/2 = 20.786 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 83 92 103 117 137 165
Atomic properties
Oxidation states0, +1, +2, +4, +6, +8 rarely non-0, waikly acidic
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.6
Covalent radius140±9 pm
Van der Waals radius216 pm
Colour lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o xenon
Ither properties
Naitural occurrenceprimordial
Creestal structurface-centred cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic creestal structur for xenon
Speed o soond(liquid) 1090 m/s; (gas) 169 m/s
Thermal conductivity5.65×10-3  W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderindiamagnetic[6]
CAS Nummer7440-63-3
History
DiskiveryWilliam Ramsay an Morris Travers (1898)
First isolationWilliam Ramsay an Morris Travers (1898)
Main isotopes o xenon
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
124Xe 0.095% >4.8×1016 y (β+β+) 124Te
125Xe syn 16.9 h ε 125I
126Xe 0.089% - (β+β+) 126Te
127Xe syn 36.345 d ε 127I
128Xe 1.91% - (SF)
129Xe 26.4% - (SF)
130Xe 4.07% - (SF)
131Xe 21.2% - (SF)
132Xe 26.9% - (SF)
133Xe syn 5.247 d β 133Cs
134Xe 10.4% >1.1×1016 y (ββ) 134Ba
135Xe syn 9.14 h β 135Cs
136Xe 8.86% 2.11×1021 y[7] ββ 136Ba
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
| references

Xenon is a chemical element wi the seembol Xe an atomic nummer 54. It is a colourless, hivy, odorless noble gas, that occurs in the Yird's atmosphere in trace amoonts.[8] Altho generally unreactive, xenon can unnergo a few chemical reactions sic as the furmation o xenon hexafluoroplatinate, the first noble gas compound tae be synthesized.[9][10][11]

Xenon is uised in flash lamps[12] an arc lamps,[13] an as a general anesthetic.[14] The first excimer laser design uised a xenon dimer molecule (Xe2) as the lasin medium,[15] an the earliest laser designs uised xenon flash lamps as pumps.[16] Xenon is uised tae sairch for hypothetical waikly interactin massive pairticles[17] an as the propellant for ion thrusters in spacecraft.[18] an for the three ion propulsion engines on NASA's Dawn Spacecraft.[19]

Naiturally occurrin xenon consists o aicht stable isotopes. Mair nor 40 unstable xenon isotopes unnergae radioactive decay, an the isotope ratios o xenon are an important tuil for studyin the early history o the Solar Seestem.[20] Radioactive xenon-135 is produced bi beta decay frae iodine-135 (a product o nuclear fission), an is the maist signeeficant (an unwantit) neutron absorber in nuclear reactors.[21]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Simpson, J. A.; Weiner, E. S. C., eds. (1989). "Xenon". Oxford English Dictionary. 20 (2nd ed.). Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-861232-X.
  2. "Xenon". Dictionary.com Unabridged. 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-06.
  3. Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  4. "Krypton". Gas Encyclopedia. Air Liquide. 2009.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nt ed.). CRC Press. p. 4.123. ISBN 1439855110.
  6. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
  7. Ackerman, N.; et al. (2011). "Observation of Two-Neutrino Double-Beta Decay in 136Xe with the EXO-200 Detector". Physical Review Letters. 107 (21): 212501. arXiv:1108.4193. Bibcode:2011PhRvL.107u2501A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.212501.
  8. Staff (2007). "Xenon". Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (6th ed.). Columbia University Press. Retrieved 2007-10-23.
  9. Husted, Robert; Boorman, Mollie (December 15, 2003). "Xenon". Los Alamos National Laboratory, Chemical Division. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
  10. Rabinovich, Viktor Abramovich; Vasserman, A. A.; Nedostup, V. I.; Veksler, L. S. (1988). Thermophysical properties of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon (English-language ed.). Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing Corp. ISBN 0-89116-675-0. Retrieved 2009-04-02.—National Standard Reference Data Service of the USSR. Volume 10.
  11. Freemantel, Michael (August 25, 2003). "Chemistry at its Most Beautiful" (PDF). Chemical & Engineering News. Retrieved 2007-09-13.
  12. Burke, James (2003). Twin Tracks: The Unexpected Origins of the Modern World. Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 0-7432-2619-4.
  13. Mellor, David (2000). Sound Person's Guide to Video. Focal Press. p. 186. ISBN 0-240-51595-1.
  14. Sanders, Robert D.; Ma, Daqing; Maze, Mervyn (2005). "Xenon: elemental anaesthesia in clinical practice". British Medical Bulletin. 71 (1): 115–35. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldh034. PMID 15728132.
  15. Basov, N. G.; Danilychev, V. A.; Popov, Yu. M. (1971). "Stimulated Emission in the Vacuum Ultraviolet Region". Soviet Journal of Quantum Electronics. 1 (1): 18–22. Bibcode:1971QuEle...1...18B. doi:10.1070/QE1971v001n01ABEH003011.
  16. Toyserkani, E.; Khajepour, A.; Corbin, S. (2004). Laser Cladding. CRC Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-8493-2172-7.
  17. Ball, Philip (May 1, 2002). "Xenon outs WIMPs". Nature. Retrieved 2007-10-08.
  18. Saccoccia, G.; del Amo, J. G.; Estublier, D. (August 31, 2006). "Ion engine gets SMART-1 to the Moon". ESA. Retrieved 2007-10-01.
  19. "Dawn Launch: Mission to Vesta and Ceres" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved 2007-10-01.
  20. Kaneoka, Ichiro (1998). "Xenon's Inside Story". Science. 280 (5365): 851–852. doi:10.1126/science.280.5365.851b.
  21. Stacey, Weston M. (2007). Nuclear Reactor Physics. Wiley-VCH. p. 213. ISBN 3-527-40679-4.