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A yeir (frae Auld Inglis gēar; Gothic jēr; Runic jēran) is a unit o time based on tha orbital period o tha Yird movin aroond tha Sun. Fur an observer at is oan tha Yird, thes corresponds tae tha period it taes tha sun tae complete a bodie coorse throoghit tha Zodiac alang tha ecliptic. In astronomy, tha Julian year is a unit o time at is defined as 365.25 days o 86400 SI seconds each (nae lowp seconds).Internaitional Astronomical Union"SI units" accessed Februar 18, 2010. (see table fife an section fife.15.) reprintit frae George A. Wilkins & IAU commission fife, "The IAU Style Manual (1989)" (PDF file) in IAU Transactions vol. xxb Thaur is nae universally acceptit seembol fur the year as a unit o time. The Internaitional Seestem o Units disnae propose a bodie. A common abbreviation in internaitional uisage is a (fur the Laitin wird annus), in Scots an Inglis an aw y or yr. Due tae the Yird's axial kelter, the coorse o a year sees the passin o the saisons, merked bi varioos changes in weaither, hoors o daylicht, an consequently vegetation an fertility. In temperate an subpolar regions, generally fower saisons ur recognised: ware, simmer, hairst an winter, each wi different temperatur an wather, astronomically merked bi the sun reachin the pynts o equinox an solstice—althoogh the climatic saisons lag behind thair astronomical markers. In some tropical an subtropical regions it is mair common tae spick o the rainy (ur dreich, or monsuin) saison versus the dry saison. A calendar year is an approximation o the Yird's orbital period in a gien calendar. A calendar year in the Gregorian calendar (as weel as in the Julian calendar) haes either 365 (common years), or 366 (lowp years) days. The wird "year" is an aw uised o periods loosely associatit but nae strictly identical wi either the astronomical or the calendar year, sic as the saisonal year, the fiscal year or the academic year, etc. Bi extension, the term year can pure techt the orbital period o onie planit: fur example, a "Maurtian year" is the time in which Maurs completes its ain orbit. The term is an aw applied mair broadly tae onie lang period or cycle, sic as the "great year".oed, s.v. "year", entry tae.b.: "transf. Applied tae a huir uv a lang period or cycle (in chronology an mythology, an vaguely in poetic uise)."

The year is aft dividit intae twal consecutive periods o time cried months: Januar, Februar, Mairch, Apryle, Mey, Juin, Julie, Augist, September, October, November, an Dizember.

Etymology[eedit | eedit soorce]

Further information: jēran

West saxon gear (jɛar), Anglian gēr continues Proto-Germanic *jǣram (*jē2ram). Cognates ur German jahr, auld high german jar, auld norse ár an Gothic jer, aw frae a pie *yērom ("year" or "saison"). Cognates ootwith o Germanic or Avestan yare ("year"), ancient Greek ὥρα ("year", "saison", or "period o time"), whence "hoor", auld kirk slavonic jaru an Laitin hornus ("o thes year"). Laitin annus (a 2nd declension masculine noon); annum is the accusatife singular; anni is genitife singular an nominatife plural; anno is the datife an ablatife singular) is frae a pie noin *at-no-, which yielded Gothic aþnam ("year") an aw. Baith *yē-ro- an *at-no- ur based oan verbal ruits fur expressin movement—*at- an *ey-, respectively—baith meanin "tae go" fur ordinar. The Greek wird fur "year", ἔτος, is cognate wi Laitin vetus ("old"), frae peh *wetus- ("year"), an aw preserved in thes meanin in sanskrit vat-sa- ("yearlin cauf") an vat-sa-ras ("year"). Derived frae the Laitin annus ur a nummer o Scots wirds, sic as annual, annuity, anniversary, etc.; per annum means "each year".

Saisonal yeir[eedit | eedit soorce]

A saisonal yeir is the time atween successife recurrences o a saisonal event, sic as the fluidin o a river, the migration o a species o spyug, the flouerin o a species o plaunt, the first frost o the yeir, or the first scheduled gam o a certain sport. Aw thir events can hae wide variations o mair nor a month frae yeir tae yeir.

Calendar yeir[eedit | eedit soorce]

A calendar yeir is the time atween tois dates wi the sam nam in a calendar. A half-year (ain half o a year) main rin frae Januar tae Juin, or Julie tae Dizember. No astronomical yeir haes an integer nummer o days or lunar months, sae onie calendar at follows an astronomical yeir main hae a system o intercalation sic as lowp years. Financial an scienteefic calculations aft uise a 365-day calendar tae simplify daily rates. In the Julian calendar, the average lenth o a yeir is 365.25 days. In a non-lowp yeir, thaur ur 365 days; in a lowp yeir, thaur ur 366 days. A lowp yeir occurs aboot every fower yeirs. The Gregorian calendar attempts tae keep the northward equinox oan or shortly afair Mairch 21, hence it follows the northward equinox year. The pure techt lenth o the yeir is 365.2425 days (as 97 it o 400 yeirs or lowp yeirs); thes is within a bodie ppm o the current lenth o the pure techt tropical yeir (365.24219 days). It is estimatit at bi the yeir 4000, the northward equinox will faa back bi a bodie day in the Gregorian calendar, nae coz o thes difference, but coz o the slowin doon o the Yird's rotation an the associatit lengthenin o the Sidereal day. The Revised Julian calendar, as uised in some Eastern Orthodox churches, an aw tries tae synchronize wi the tropical yeir. The average lenth o thes calendar's yeir is 365.242222 days (as 218 it o 900 years or lowp yeirs). Gregorian an revised Julian calendars will stairt tae differ in 2800. The persian calendar, in uise in Afghanistan an Iran, haes its yeir begin oan the day o the northward equinox as determined bi astronomical computation (fur the time zain o tehran), as opposed tae uisin an algorithmic system o lowp yeirs.

Nummerin calendar yeirs[eedit | eedit soorce]

A calendar era is uised tae assign a nummer tae each individual yeir, uisin a reference pynt in the pest as the beginnin o the era. In mony coontries, the maist common era is frae the tradeetional (thoogh noo believed incorrect) yeir o the birth o Jesus. Dates in thes era ur designatit as anno domini (Laitin fur "in the yeir o the Lord"), abbreviatit AD (fur Anno Domini) or CE (fur "common era"). The yeir afair yin AD or CE is designatit yin "befair Christ" (BC) or "befair the common era" (BCE); the yeir afair at tae BC; etc. Hence thaur wisnae year 0 AD/CE. When the computations involvin yeirs ur dain involvin baith yeirs AD an years BC, it is common tae uise astronomical yeir nummerin, in which yin BC is designatit "0", tae BC is designatit "−1", an sae oan. Ither eras ur an aw uised tae enumerate the yeirs in different cultural, religioos, an scienteefic contexts.

Ither annual periods[eedit | eedit soorce]

Fiscal year[eedit | eedit soorce]

A fiscal year or financial year is a 12-month period uised fur calculatin annual financial statements in businesses an ither organizations. In mony jurisdictions, regulations regardin accoontin require sic reports ance per twal months, but dinnae require at the twal months constitute a calendar year. Fur example, in Canada an Indie the fiscal year runs frae Apryle 1; in the Unitit Kinrick it runs frae Apryle yin fur purposes o corporation tax an government financial statements, but frae Apryle sex fur purposes o personal taxation an payment o state benefits; in Australia it runs frae Julie 1, while in the Unitit States, the fiscal year o the federal government runs frae October yin.

Academic year[eedit | eedit soorce]

An academic year is the annual period durin which a student attends an eddicational institution. The academic year main be dividit intae academic terms, sic as semesters an quarters. Some schuils in the UK an USA divide the academic year intae three rooghly equal-lenth terms (cried "trimesters" or "quarters" in the US), rooghly coincidin wi hairst, winter, an ware. At some, a shortened simmer session, whiles considered a pairt o the regular academic year, is attended bi students oan a voluntary or electife basis. Ither schuils break the year intae twa main semesters, a first (teepically Augist ben Dizember) an a second semester (Januar ben Mey). Each o thir main semesters main be split in half bi mid-term examinaitions, an each o the halves is referred tae as a "quarter" (or "term" in some coontries). Thaur main an aw be an electife simmer session and/ur a cuttie Januar session. Some ither schuils, includin some in the Unitit States, hae foor eddicational periods o markin. The skale year in mony coontries starts in Augist or September an ends in Mey, Juin, or Julie. Some schuils in the Unitit States, notably Boston Laitin Schuil, main divide the year intae fife or mair markin periods. Some state in defense o thes at thaur is aiblins a positife correlation atween report frequency an academic achievement. Thaur ur teepically 180 days o teachin each year in schuils in the usa, excludin weekends an breaks, while 190 days fur pupils in state schuils in the Unititd Kinrick, New Zealain an Canada an aw. Tho, in Indie, the academic year normally starts frae Juin yin an ends oan Mey 31. Thocht schuils stairt closin in the end o ware, the actual academic closure is oan Mey 31, an in Nepal it starts frae Julie 15.[citation needit] schuils an varsities in australia teepically hae academic years at rooghly align wi the calendar year (i.e. startin in Februar or Mairch an endin in October tae Dizember), as the soothern hemisphaur experiences simmer frae Dizember tae Februar. In Israel, the academic year begins aroond October or November, aligned wi the second month o the Hebrew calendar.

Astronomical year[eedit | eedit soorce]

Julian year[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Julian year, as uised in astronomy an ither sciences, is a unit o time defined as exactly 365.25 days. Thes is the normal meanin o the unit "year" (seembol "a" frae the Laitin annus) uised in varioos scienteefic contexts. The Julian century o 36525 days an the Julian millennium o 365250 days ur uised in astronomical calculations. Fundamentally, expressin a time interval in Julian years is a way tae precisely specify hoo mony days (nae hoo mony "real" years), fur lang time intervals whaur statin the nummer o days woods be unwieldy an unintuitife. Bi convention, the Julian year is uised in the computation o the distance covered bi a lichtyear. In the unified code fur units o measure, the seembol a (withit subscript) aye refers tae the Julian year aj o exactly 31557600 seconds. 365.25 days o 86400 seconds = yin a = yin aj = 31.5576 ms the SI multiplier prefixes main be applied tae it tae f'rm ka (kiloannum), ma (megaannum) etc.

Sidereal, tropical, an anomalistic years[eedit | eedit soorce]

Each o thir three years can be luisely cried an "astronomical year". The sidereal year is the time taen fur the Yird tae complete a bodie revolution o its orbit, as measured against a fixed fram o reference (sic as the fixed stars, Laitin sidera, singular sidus). Its average duration is 365.256363004 pure techt solar days (365 d sex h 9 min 9.76 s) (at the epoch j2000.0 = Januar yin, 2000, 12:00:00 tt). Internaitional Yird rotation and reference system service. (2010).iers eop pc uiseful constants. the tropical year is the period o time fur the ecliptic longitude o the sun tae increase bi 360 degrees. Syne the sun's ecliptic longitude is measured wi respect tae the equinox, the tropical year comprises a complete cycle o the saisons; coz o the biological an socio-economic importance o the saisons, the tropical year is the basis o maist calendars. The tropical year is commonly defined[1] fur the pure techt motion o the sun alang the ecliptic. Thes differs frae the actual time atween passages o, e.g., the northward equinox fur several reasons explained ablo. Coz o the Yird's axial precession, thes year is abit 20 meenits shorter than the Sidereal year. The pure techt tropical year is approximately 365 days, fife hoors, 48 meenits, 45 seconds[2] (= 365.24219 days). The anomalistic year is the time taen fur the Yird tae complete a bodie revolution wi respect tae its apsides. The orbit o the Yird is elliptical; the extreme pynts, cried "apsides", or the perihelion—whaur the Yird is closest tae the sun (aboot 3 Januar in 2011)—an the aphelion, whaur the Yird is farthest frae the sun (Julie fuir in 2011). The anomalistic year is uisually defined as the time atween perihelion passages. Its average duration is 365.259636 days (365 d sex h 13 min 52.6 s) (at the epoch j2011.0).[3] if Yird moved in an ideal kepler orbit, i.e. a perfect ellipse wi the sun fixed at a bodie focus, each kin o year woods aye hae the sam duration, an the sidereal an anomalistic years woods be equal. Coz o perturbations bi the gravity o ither planits, Yird's motion varies slichtly, causin the sidereal an tropical years tae vary in lenth bi abit 25 meenits (see the table ablo). Baith ur affectit in the sam way, sae at the sidereal year is consistently 20 meenits langer than the tropical year, providit at thay ur measured in huir uv a sam way.

365.24219 si days|- |align=center|2007-12-22 06:04:04.2 |align=right| +10.51 meenits |- |align=center|2008-12-21 12:03:19.7 |align=right| -11.86 meenits |- |align=center|2009-12-21 17:40:13.2 |align=right| +15.91 meenits |- |align=center|2010-12-21 23:44:53.2 |align=right| -11.94 meenits |- |align=center|2011-12-22 05:21:41.8 |align=right| +3.58 meenits |- |align=center|2012-12-21 11:14:01.9 |align=right| +2.85 meenits |- |align=center|2013-12-21 17:05:38.3 |align=right| +0.86 meenits |- |align=center|2014-12-21 22:55:15.2 |align=right| +0.48 meenits |} an example o a year at will hae a duration exceedin the average value o 365.24219si dayswi as much as 24.23 meenits is the a bodie at will begin at winter solstice Dizember 21, 2042 17:47:45.5 (atomic time).

Draconic year[eedit | eedit soorce]

The draconic year, draconitic year, eclipse year, or ecliptic year is the time taen fur the sun (as seen frae the Yird) tae complete a bodie revolution wi respect tae the sam lunar node (a pynt whaur the muin's orbit intersects the ecliptic). Thes period is associatit wi eclipses: thir occur anly when baith the sun an the muin ur near thir nodes; sae eclipses occur within abit a month o every half o an eclipse year. Hence, thaur ur tois eclipse saisons every eclipse year. The average duration o the eclipse year is:346.620075883 days (346 d 14 h 52 min 54 s) (at the epoch j2000.0). This term is whiles erroneoosly uised fur the draconic or nodal period o lunar precession; at is, the period o a complete revolution o the muin's ascendin node aroond the ecliptic: 18.612815932 Julian years (6798.331019 days, at the epoch j2000.0).

Full muin cycle[eedit | eedit soorce]

The full muin cycle is the time fur the sun (as seen frae the Yird) tae complete a bodie revolution wi respect tae the perigee o the orbit o the muin. Thes period is associatit wi the apparent size o the full muin, an wi the varyin duration o the synodic month an aw. The duration o a bodie foo muin cycle is: :411.78443029 days (411 d 18 h 49 min 34 s) (at the epoch j2000.0).

Lunar year[eedit | eedit soorce]

The lunar year comprises twal foo cycles o the phases o the muin, as seen frae the Yird. It haes a duration o approximately 354.37 days. Muslims uise thes fur celebratin thair eids an fur markin the stairt o the fastin month o Ramadan. A Musleem calender year is based oan the lunar cycle.

Vague year[eedit | eedit soorce]

The "vague year", frae annus vagus ("wanderin year"), is an integral approximation tae the year equalin 365 days, which wanders in relation tae mair exact years. teepically, the vague year is dividit intae 12 schematic months o 30 days each plus fife epagomenal days. Thes "vague year" wis uised in the calendars o ancient Egyp, Iran, Armenie an in mesoamerica amang the Aztecs an Maya.calendar description an coordinaition Maya Warld Studies Center.

Heliacal year[eedit | eedit soorce]

A heliacal year is the interval atween the heliacal risins o a staurn. It differs frae the sidereal year fur stars awa frae the ecliptic due mainly tae the precession o the equinoxes.

Sothic year[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Sothic year is the interval atween heliacal risins o the staurn sirius. It is presently less nor the sidereal year an its duration is huir uv a close tae the pure techt Julian year o 365.25 days.

Gaussian year[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Gaussian year is the sidereal year fur a planit o negligible mass (relatife tae the sun) an unperturbed bi ither planits at is governed bi the Gaussian gravitational constant. Sic a planit woods be slichtly closer tae the sun than the Yird's pure techt distance. Its lenth is: :365.2568983 days (365 d sex h 9 min 56 s).

Besselian year[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Besselian year is a tropical year at starts when the (fictitioos) pure techt sun reaches an ecliptic longitude o 280°. Thes is currently oan or close tae Januar yin. It wis named efter the 19th century German astronomer an mathematician Friedrich Bessel. The followin equation can be uised in irder tae compute the current besselian epoch (in years):[4] : b = 1900.0 + (Julian datett − 2415020.31352) / 365.242198781 the "tt" subscript indicates at fur thes formula, the Julian date shoods uise the terrestrial time scale or its predecessur, ephemeris time.

Variation in the lengths o the year an the day[eedit | eedit soorce]

Template:Refimprove section The exact lenth o an astronomical year changes ower time.the astronomical almanac online[nae in citation given] the main soorces o thes chynge are:

  • The poseetions o the equinox an solstice pynts wi respect tae the apsides o Yird's orbit chynge: the first coz o precession, an the apsides coz o the long-term effects o gravitational pull bi the ither planits. Syne the speed o the Yird varies accordin tae its poseetion in its orbit as measured frae its perihelion, Yird's speed when in a solstice or equinox pynt changes ower time: if sic a pynt moves toward perihelion, the interval atween tois passages decreases a bit frae year tae year; if the pynt moves towards aphelion, en at period inreases a bit frae year tae year. Sae a "tropical year" measured frae a bodie passage o the northward ("vernal") equinox tae the neist, it differs frae the a bodie measured atween passages o the soothward (hairst) equinox. The average ower the foo orbit disnae chynge coz o thes, sae the lenth o the average tropical year disnae chynge coz o thes second-order effect.
  • Each planit's movement is perturbed bi the gravity o every ither planit. Thes leids tae short-term fluctuations in its speed, an therefair its period frae year tae year. Mairowre, it haes caused long-term changes in its orbit, an therefair long-term changes in thir periods an aw.
  • Tidal drag atween the Yird an the muin (an sun) increases the lenth o the day an o the month (bi transferrin angular momentum frae the rotation o Yird tae the revolution o the muin); syne the apparent pure techt solar day is the unit wi which we measure the lenth o the year in civil life, the lenth o the year appears tae decrease. The rotation rate o the Yird is changed an aw bi factors sic as post-glacial reboond an sea level rise.

Numerical value o year variation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Mean year lenths in thes section ur calculatit fur 2000, an differences in year lenths compared tae 2000 ur gien fur pest an future years. In the tables a day is 86,400 SI seconds lang.[5][6][7][8]

Mean year lenths fur 2000

Teep o year days hoors meenits seconds
tropical 365 5 48 45
sidereal 365 6 9 10
anomalistic 365 6 13 53
eclipse 346 14 52 55
Lenth o year: difference frae 2000 in seconds
(anly positive when lenth fur tabulatit year is greater than the lenth fur 2000)
Year Tropical Sidereal Anomalistic Eclipse
−4000 −8 −45 −15 −174
−2000 4 −19 −11 −116
0 7 −4 −5 −57
2000 0 0 0 0
4000 −14 −3 5 54
6000 −35 −12 10 104

Summary[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • 346.62 days: a draconitic year.
  • 353, 354, or 355 days: the lenths o common years in some lunisolar calendars.
  • 354.37 days (12 lunar months): the average lenth o the years in lunar calendars, notably the musleem calendar.
  • 365 days: a vague year ane a common year in mony solar calendars.
  • 365.24219 days: a pure techt tropical year (roonded tae fife decimal places) fur the epoch 2000.
  • 365.2424 days: a vernal equinox year (roonded tae fower decimal places) fur the epoch 2000.
  • 365.2425 days: the average lenth o a year in the Gregorian calendar.
  • 365.25 days: the average lenth o a year in the Julian calendar.
  • 365.2564 days: a sidereal year.
  • 366 days: a lowp year in mony solar calendars.
  • 383, 384, or 385 days: the lenths o lowp years in some lunisolar calendars.
  • 383.9 days (13 lunar months): a lowp year in some lunisolar calendars. An average Gregorian year is 365.2425 days = 52.1775 weeks = 8765.82 hoors = 525949.2 meenits = 31556952 seconds (mean solar, nae si). A common year is 365 days = 8760 hoors = 525600 meenits = 31536000 seconds. A lowp year is 366 days = 8784 hoors = 527040 meenits = 31622400 seconds. The 400-year cycle o the Gregorian calendar haes 146097 days, an hence exactly 20871 weeks.

Symbol[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thaur is nae universally acceptit seembol fur the year as a unit o time. The Internaitional Seestem o Units disnae propose a bodie. Nist sp811 [9] an ISO 80000-3:2006 [10] suggest the seembol a, taen frae the Laitin wird annus.[11] in Scots, the abbreviations "y" an "yr" ur whiles uised, specifically in geology an paleontology, whaur "kyr, myr, byr" (thoosands, millions, an even billions o years, respectively) an seemilar abbreviations ur uised tae denote intervals o time remote frae the present.[12]

Symbol "A"[eedit | eedit soorce]

Nist sp811 [13] an ISO 80000-3:2006 [14] suggest the seembol a (in the Internaitional Seestem o Units, althoogh a is the seembol an aw fur the are, the unit o aurie uised tae measure lain aurie, but context is uisually enaw tae disambiguate). The abbreviations y an yr ur uised an aw. The unified code fur units o measure[15] disambiguates the varyin symbologies of ISO 1000, ISO 2955 an ansi x3.50[16] bi usin :ar fur are and: :at = a_t = 365.24219 days fur the pure techt tropical year :aj = a_j = 365.25 days fur the pure techt Julian year :ag = a_g = 365.2425 days fur the pure techt Gregorian year :a = yin aj year (withit further qualifier) a definition jointly adoptit bi the Internaitional Union o Pure an Applee'd Chemistry (IUPAC) an the Internaitional Union o Geological Sciences (IUGS) is tae uise annus, wi seembol a, fur year, defined as the lenth o the tropical year in the year 2000:[17][18] :a = 365.24219265 days = 31556925.445 seconds the notation haes proved controversial; it conflicts wi an earlier convention amang geoscientists tae uise a specifically fur "years ago", an y or yr fur a period o ane year.

SI prefix multipliers[eedit | eedit soorce]

Fur the followin, thaur ur alternatife forms which elide the consecutife vowels, sic as kilannum, megannum, etc.

  • ka (fur kiloannum), is a unit o time equal tae a bodie thoosand (103) years. Thes is teepically uised in geology, paleontology, an archaeology fur holocene an pleistocene periods whaur a non-radiocarbon datin technique (i.e., ice core datin, dendrochronology, uranium-thorium datin, or varve analysis) is uised as the primary datin method fur age determinaition. If age is primarily determined bi radiocarbon datin, en the age shoods be expressed in either radiocarbon or calendar (calibratit) years befair present.
  • ma (fur megaannum), is a unit o time equal tae a bodie million (106) years. It is commonly uised in scienteefic disciplines sic as geology, paleontology, an celestial mechanics tae signify huir uv a lang time periods intae the pest or future. Fur example, the dinosaur species tyrannosaurus rex wis abundant approximately 65 ma (65 million years) ago (ago mauna aye be mentioned; if the quantity is specified while nae explicitly discussin a duration, a bodie can assume at "ago" is implied; the alternatife "mya" unit includes "ago" explicitly). In astronomical applications, the year uised is the Julian year o precisely 365.25 days. In geology an paleontology, the year isnae sae precise an varies—dependin oan the authur.
  • ga (fur gigaannum), is a unit o time equal tae 109 years (ain billion oan the short scale, a bodie milliard oan the lang scale). It is commonly uised in scienteefic disciplines sic as cosmology an geology tae signify extremely lang time periods in the pest. Fur example, the formation o the Yird occurred approximately 4.57 ga (4.57 billion years) ago.
  • ta (fur teraannum), is a unit o time equal tae 1012 years (ain trillion oan the cuttie scale, a bodie billion oan the lang scale). It is an extremely lang unit o time, abit 70 times as lang as the age o the universe. It's the sam order o magnitude as the expectit life span o a wee red dwarf star.
  • pa (fur petaannum), is a unit o time equal tae 1015 years (ain quadrillion oan the cuttie scale, a bodie billiard oan the lang scale). The half-life o the nuclide o cadmium-113 is abit eeecht pa.[19] thes seembol coincides wi at fur the pascal withit a multiplier prefix, thocht baith ur infrequently uised an context will normally be sufficient tae distinguish time frae pressure values.
  • ea (fur exaannum), is a unit o time equal tae 1018 years (ain quintillion oan the cuttie scale, a bodie trillion oan the lang scale). The half-life o tungsten-180 is yin.8 ea.[20]

Symbols "y" an "yr"[eedit | eedit soorce]

In astronomy, geology, an paleontology, the abbreviations yr fur "years" an ya fur "years ago" ur whiles uised, combined wi prefixes fur "thoosand", "million", or "billion".[21] The age o a stratigraphic unit or the time o a geologic event, as commonly determined bi numerical datin or bi reference tae a calibratit time-scale, main be expressed in years afair the present. The unit o time is the modren year as presently recognised warldwide. Recommended but nae mandatory abbreviations fur sic ages ur SI (Internaitional Seestem o Units) multipliers coopled wi "a" fur annum: ka, ma, an ga fur kilo-annum (103 years), mega-annum (106 years), an giga-annum (109 years), respectively. The uisin o thir terms efter the age value follows the convention established in the field o carbon-14 datin. The "present" refers tae 1950 ad, an sic qualifiers as "ago" or "befair the present" ur omittit efter the value coz measurement o the duration frae the present tae the pest is implicit in the designaition. In contraest, the duration o ane remote interval o geologic time, as a nummer o years, shoods nae be expressed bi the sam seembols. Abbreviations fur nummers o years, withit reference tae the present, ur cried informal (e.g., y or yr fur "years"; mah, m.y., or m.yr. fur millions o years; an sae forth, as preference dictates). Fur example, boondaries o the late cretaceoos epoch currently ur calibratit at 63 ma an 96 ma, but the interval o time representit bi thes epoch is 33 m.y.}} thay arenae SI units, uisin y tae abbreviate Scots year, but followin ambiguoos internaitional recommendations, uise either the standard Scots first letters as prefixes ("t", "m", an "b") or metric prefixes ("k", "m", an "g"). Thir abbreviations include:

Non-SI abbreviation SI-prefixed equivalent Order o magnitude
kyr ka
  • Thoosand years
myr Ma
  • Million years
byr Ga
tya or kya "ka ago"
Main articles: 1 E10 s, 1 E11 s, and 1 E12 s
mya "Ma ago"
Main articles: 1 E13 s, 1 E14 s, and 1 E15 s
bya or gya "Ga ago"
Main articles: 1 E16 s, 1 E17 s, and 1 E18 s

Uisage o "mya" an "bya" is deprecatit in modren geophysics, the recommended usage til "ma" an "ga" fur dates befair present, but "m.y." fur the duration o epochs. Thes ad hoc distinction atween "absolute" time an time intervals is somewhat controversial amongst members o the Geological Society o America.[23] note at oan graphs uisin "ya" units oan the horizontal axis time flows frae reit tae left, which main seem coonter-intuitife. If the "ya" units ur oan the vertical axis, time flows frae tap tae bottom which is probably easier tae kin than conventional notation.

Great years[eedit | eedit soorce]

Equinoctial cycle[eedit | eedit soorce]

The "great year", or equinoctial cycle, corresponds tae a complete revolution o the equinoxes aroond the ecliptic. Its lenth is abit 25,700 years, an cannae be determined precisely as the precession speed is variable.

Galactic year[eedit | eedit soorce]

The galactic year is the time it taes the Yird's solar system tae revolve ance aroond the galactic center. It comprises rooghly 230 million Yird years.[24]

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. P.K.Seidelman (ed.) (1992). explanatory supplement to the astronomical almanac. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-891389-45-0. 
  2. astronomical almanac fur the year 2011. Washington an Taunton: U.S. Government Printin Office an the U.K. Hydrographic Office. 2009. p. m18 (glossary). 
  3. astronomical almanac fur the year 2011. Washington an Taunton: U.S. Government Printin Office an the U.K. Hydrographic Office. 2009. pp. a1, c2. 
  4. astronomical almanac fur the year 2010. Washington an Taunton: U.S. Government Printing Office and the U.K. Hydrographic Office. 2008. p. b3. 
  5. U.S. Naval Observatory Nautical Almanac Office and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (2010). Astronomical Almanac for the year 2011. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. C2, L8. 
  6. Simon, J.L.; Bretagnon, P.; Chapront, J.; Chapront-Touzé, M.; Francou, G.; Laskar, J. (Februar 1994). "Numerical expressions for precession formulae and mean elements for the Moon and planets". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 282 (2): 663–683. Bibcode:1994A&A...282..663S. 
  7. Taff, Lawrence G. (1985). Celestial Mechanics: A Computational Guide for the Practitioner. New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 103. ISBN 0-471-89316-1.  Values in tables agree closely fur 2000, an depairt bi as much as 44 seconds fur the years furthest in the pest or future; the expressions ur simpler than those recommended in the Astronomical Almanac fur the year 2011.
  8. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth (2013). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac. Sean E. Urban (ed.) (3 ed.). Univ Science Books. p. 587. ISBN 1-891389-85-8.  Tabulates length o tropical year frae −500 tae 2000 at 500-year intervals usin a formula bi laskar (1986); agrees closely wi values in thes section near 2000, depairts bi sex seconds in −500.
  9. Ambler Thompson, Barry N. Taylor (2008). "special publication 811: Guide for the use of the International System of Units (SI)" (pdf). Naitional Institute o Standards an Technology (nist). paragraph 8.1. 
  10. "ISO 80000-3:2006, quantities and units – part 3: space and time". geneva, switzerland: internaitional organization fur standardization. 2006. 
  11. Russ Rowlett. "units: a". haw mony? a dictionary o units o measurement. university o north carolina. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 
  12. "agu editorial style guide fur authors". american geophysical union. September 21, 2007. Archived frae the original on 2008-07-14. Retrieved 2009-01-09.  North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature (November 2005). "north american stratigraphic code". The American Association o Petroleum Geologists Bulletin (article 13 (c) ed.). 89 (11): 1547–1591. 
  13. Ambler Thompson, Barry N. Taylur (2008). "special publication 811 – Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI)" (PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). para eeecht.1. 
  14. "ISO 80000-3:2006, quantities an units". Geneva: Internaitional Organization fur Standardization (ISO). 2006. part 3: space and time. 
  15. Gunther Schadaw, Clement J. Mcdonald. "unified code fur units o measure". 
  17. Norman E. Holden, Mauro L. Bonardi, Paul de Bièvre, Paul R. Renne, an Igur M Villa (2011). "IUPAC-IUGS Common Definition and Convention on the Use of the Year as a Derived Unit of Time (IUPAC Recommendations 2011)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 83 (5): 1159–1162. doi:10.1351/pac-rec-09-01-22. 
  18. Celeste Biever (Apryle 27, 2011). "Push to Define Year Sparks Time War". New Scientist. Retrieved Apryle 28, 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date=, |date= (help)
  19. p. belli it al. (2007). "Investigation of β decay of 113cd". Phys. Rev. C. 76 (sex): 064603. Bibcode:2007phrvc..76f4603b. doi:10.1103/physrevc.76.064603. 
  20. f. a. danevich it al. (2003). "α activity of natural tungsten isotopes". phys. rev. c. 67: 014310. Bibcode:2003phrvc..67a4310d. arXiv:nucl-ex/0211013. doi:10.1103/physrevc.67.014310. 
  21. North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature. "North American Stratigraphic Code". (c) convention an abbreviations.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  22. Bradford M. Clement (Apryle 8, 2004). "Dependence of the duration of geomagnetic polarity reversals on site latitude". Nature. 428 (6983): 637–40. Bibcode:2004Natur.428..637C. PMID 15071591. doi:10.1038/nature02459.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  23. "time units". geological society o america. Retrieved 2010-2-17.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  24. "science bowl questions, astronomy, sit tae" (PDF). science bowl practice questions. Oak Ridge Associated Universities. 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-9.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)

Further readin[eedit | eedit soorce]

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