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Reconstruction o the teep specimen (CM 9380) o the Tyrannosaurus at the Carnegie Museum o Naitural History
Scientific classification e
Kinrick: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Faimily: Tyrannosauridae
Subfaimily: Tyrannosaurinae
Tribe: Tyrannosaurini
Osborn, 1906
Genus: Tyrannosaurus
Osborn, 1905
Teep species
Tyrannosaurus rex
Osborn, 1905

Tyrannosaurus (/tˌrænəˈsɔːrəs, t-/, meanin "tyrant lizard", frae the Ancient Greek tyrannos (τύραννος), "tyrant", an sauros (σαῦρος), "lizard"[1]) is a genus o coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur. The species Tyrannosaurus rex (rex meanin "king" in Latin), is ane o the maist well-represented o the lairge theropods. Tyrannosaurus lived throughout what is nou wastren North Americae, on what wis then an island continent kent as Laramidia. Tyrannosaurus haed a much wider range than ither tyrannosaurids. Fossils are foond in a variety o rock formations datin tae the Maastrichtian age o the upper Cretaceous Period, 68 tae 66 million years ago.[2] It wis the last kent member o the tyrannosaurids,[3] an amang the last non-avian dinosaurs tae exist afore the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction.

Lik ither tyrannosaurids, Tyrannosaurus wis a bipedal carnivore wi a massive skull balanced bi a lang, hivy tail. Relative tae its lairge an pouerfu hind limms, Tyrannosaurus fore limbs war short but unuisually pouerfu for thair size an haed twa clawed deegits. The maist complete specimen meisurs up tae 12.3 m (40 ft) in lenth,[4] up tae 3.66 meter (12 ft) taw at the hips,[5] an accordin tae maist modren estimates 8.4 metric ton (9.3 short ton) tae 14 metric ton (15.4 short ton) in wecht.[4][6][7] Awtho ither theropods rivaled or exceedit Tyrannosaurus rex in size, it is still amang the lairgest kent land predators an is estimatit tae hae exerted the lairgest bite force amang aw terrestrial ainimals.[8][9] Bi far the lairgest carnivore in its environment, Tyrannosaurus rex wis maist likely an apex predator, preyin upon hadrosaurs, airmoured yerbivores lik ceratopsians an ankylosaurs, an possibly sauropods.[10] Some experts, houiver, hae suggestit the dinosaur wis primarily a scaivenger. The quaisten o whether Tyrannosaurus wis an apex predator or a pure scavenger wis amang the langest ongoing debates in paleontology.[11] It is acceptit nou that Tyrannosaurus rex actit as a predator, an opportunistically scaivenged as modren mammalian an avian predators dae.

Mair nor 50 specimens o Tyrannosaurus rex hae been identifee'd, some o which are nearly complete skeletons. Soft tissue an proteins hae been reportit in at least ane o thir specimens. The abundance o fossil material haes allaed signeeficant resairch intae mony aspects o its biology, includin its life history an biomechanics. The feedin habits, pheesiology an potential speed o Tyrannosaurus rex are a few subjects o debate. Its taxonomy is an aa controversial, as some scientists conseeder Tarbosaurus bataar frae Asie tae be a seicont Tyrannosaurus species while ithers mainteen Tarbosaurus is a separate genus. Several ither genera o North American tyrannosaurids hae an aa been synonymized wi Tyrannosaurus.

As the aircheteepal therapod, Tyrannosaurus is ane o the best-kent dinosaurs, an haes been featurt in film, advertisin, an postal stamps, as well as mony ither types o media.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Tyrannosaurus". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  2. Hicks, J. F.; Johnson, K. R.; Obradovich, J. D.; Tauxe, L.; Clark, D. (2002). "Magnetostratigraphy and geochronology of the Hell Creek and basal Fort Union Formations of southwestern North Dakota and a recalibration of the Cretaceous–Tertiary Boundary" (PDF). Geological Society of America Special Papers. 361: 35–55. doi:10.1130/0-8137-2361-2.35. ISBN 0-8137-2361-2.
  3. DiChristina, Mariette (14 Apryle 2015). "Rise of the Tyrants". ... was merely the last survivor of a startling variety of tyrannosaurs that lived across the globe right up until the asteroid impact 66 million years ago ...
  4. a b Hutchinson, J. R.; Bates, K. T.; Molnar, J.; Allen, V.; Makovicky, P. J. (2011). "A Computational Analysis of Limb and Body Dimensions in Tyrannosaurus rex with Implications for Locomotion, Ontogeny, and Growth". PLoS ONE. 6 (10): e26037. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026037. PMC 3192160. PMID 22022500.
  5. "Sue Fact Sheet" (PDF). Sue at the Field Museum. Field Museum of Natural History. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 18 August 2016.
  6. Hartman, Scott (7 Julie 2013). "Mass estimates: North vs South redux". Scott Hartman's Skeletal Drawing.com. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  7. Therrien, F.; Henderson, D. M. (2007). "My theropod is bigger than yours ... or not: estimating body size from skull length in theropods". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27 (1): 108–115. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2007)27[108:MTIBTY]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0272-4634.
  8. Snively, Eric; Henderson, Donald M.; Phillips, Doug S. (2006). "Fused and vaulted nasals of tyrannosaurid dinosaurs: Implications for cranial strength and feeding mechanics" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 51 (3): 435–454. Retrieved 8 October 2008.
  9. Meers, Mason B. (August 2003). "Maximum bite force and prey size of Tyrannosaurus rex and their relationships to the inference of feeding behavior". Historical Biology: A Journal of Paleobiology. 16 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1080/0891296021000050755.
  10. Switeck, Brian (13 Apryle 2012). "When Tyrannosaurus Chomped Sauropods". Smithsonian Media. Archived frae the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  11. Hutchinson, John (15 Julie 2013). "Tyrannosaurus rex: predator or media hype?". What's in John's Freezer?. Retrieved 26 August 2013.