Cadmium

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Cadmium,  48Cd
Cadmium-crystal bar.jpg
General properties
Name, seembol cadmium, Cd
Appearance sillery bluish-gray metallic
Pronunciation /ˈkædmiəm/ KAD-mee-əm
Cadmium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)
Zn

Cd

Hg
sillercadmiumindium
Atomic nummer (Z) 48
Group, block group 12, d-block
Period period 5
Element category   transeetion metal, Alternatively considered a post-transeetion metal
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 112.414(4)
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 594.22 K ​(321.07 °C, ​609.93 °F)
Bylin pynt 1040 K ​(767 °C, ​1413 °F)
Density near r.t. 8.65 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 7.996 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 6.21 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 99.87 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.020 J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 530 583 654 745 867 1040
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 2, 1 (mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.69
Atomic radius empirical: 151 pm
Covalent radius 144±9 pm
Van der Waals radius 158 pm
Miscellanea
Creestal structur hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structur for cadmium
Speed o soond thin rod 2310 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 30.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 96.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity (22 °C) 72.7 n Ω·m
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic[1]
Young's modulus 50 GPa
Shear modulus 19 GPa
Bouk modulus 42 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.30
Mohs haurdness 2.0
Brinell haurdness 203 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-43-9
History
Diskivery Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann an Friedrich Stromeyer (1817)
First isolation Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann an Friedrich Stromeyer (1817)
Named bi Friedrich Stromeyer (1817)
Maist stable isotopes o cadmium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
106Cd 1.25% >4.1×1020 y (β+β+) 2.770 106Pd
107Cd syn 6.5 h ε 1.417 107Ag
108Cd 0.89% >4.1×1017 y (β+β+) 0.272 108Pd
109Cd syn 462.6 d ε 0.214 109Ag
110Cd 12.49% - (SF) <22.486
111Cd 12.8% - (SF) <21.883
112Cd 24.13% - (SF) <20.733
113Cd 12.22% 7.7×1015 y β 0.316 113In
113mCd syn 14.1 y β 0.580 113In
IT 0.264 113Cd
114Cd 28.73% >6.4×1018 y (ββ) 0.540 114Sn
115Cd syn 53.46 h β 1.446 115In
116Cd 7.49% 3.1×1019 y ββ 2.809 116Sn
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· references

Cadmium is a chemical element wi the seembol Cd an atomic nummer 48. This saft, bluish-white metal is chemically seemilar tae the twa ither stable metals in group 12, zinc an mercur. Lik zinc, it prefers oxidation state +2 in maist o its compoonds an lik mercur it shaws a law meltin pynt compared tae transeetion metals. Cadmium an its congeners are nae always considered transeetion metals, in that thay dae nae hae pairtly filled d or f electron shells in the elemental or common oxidation states. The average concentration o cadmium in the Yird's crust is atween 0.1 an 0.5 pairts per million (ppm). It wis discovered in 1817 simultaneously bi Stromeyer an Hermann, baith in Germany, as an impurity in zinc carbonate.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Lide, D. R., ed. (2000). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". [[CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]] (PDF) (81st ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-0481-1.  URL–wikilink conflict (help)