Nitrogen

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Nitrogen,  7N
Liquidnitrogen.jpg
General properties
Appearancecolorless gas, liquid or solid
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart)[14.0064314.00728] conventional: 14.007
Nitrogen in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
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N

P
carbonnitrogenoxygen
Atomic nummer (Z)7
Groupgroup 15 (pnictogens)
Periodperiod 2
Element category  nonmetal
Blockp-block
Electron confeeguration[He] 2s2 2p3
Electrons per shell
2, 5
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP)gas
Meltin pynt63.15 K ​(−210.00 °C, ​−346.00 °F)
Bylin pynt77.36 K ​(−195.79 °C, ​−320.33 °F)
Density (at STP)1.251 g/L
when liquid (at b.p.)0.808 g/cm3
Treeple pynt63.1526 K, ​12.53 kPa
Creetical pynt126.19 K, 3.3978 MPa
Heat o fusion(N2) 0.72 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation(N2) 5.56 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity(N2)
29.124 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 37 41 46 53 62 77
Atomic properties
Oxidation states5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −3 ​strangly acidic oxide
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 3.04
Ionisation energies
Covalent radius71±1 pm
Van der Waals radius155 pm
Coloyr lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o Nitrogen
Miscellanea
Creestal structurhexagonal
Hexagonal creestal structur for nitrogen
Speed o soond(gas, 27 °C) 353 m/s
Thermal conductivity25.83 × 10−3 W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderindiamagnetic
CAS Nummer7727-37-9
History
DiskiveryDaniel Rutherford (1772)
Named biJean-Antoine Chaptal (1790)
Main isotopes o nitrogen
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
13N syn 9.965 min ε 13C
14N 99.634% stable
15N 0.366% stable
| references | in Wikidata

Nitrogen is a chemical element wi seembol N an atomic nummer 7. Elemental nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, an maistly inert diatomic gas at staundart condeetions, constitutin 78.09% bi volume o Yird's atmosphere. The element nitrogen wis discovered as a separable component o air, bi Scottish physeecian Daniel Rutherford, in 1772. It alangs tae the pnictogen faimily.

Nitrogen is a common element in the universe, estimatit at aboot seivent in tot abundance in our galaxy an the Solar Seestem. It is synthesised bi fusion o carbon an hydrogen in supernovae. Due tae the volatility o elemental nitrogen an its common compoonds wi hydrogen an oxygen, nitrogen is far less common on the rocky planets o the inner Solar Seestem, an it is a relatively rare element on Yird as a whole. Houiver, as on Yird, nitrogen an its compounds occur commonly as gases in the atmospheres o planets an muins that hae atmospheres.

Mony industrially important compoonds, sic as ammonie, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants an explosives), an cyanides, contain nitrogen. The extremely strang bond in elemental nitrogen dominates nitrogen chemistry, causin difficulty for baith organisms an industry in convertin the N
2
intae uiseful compoonds, but at the same time causin release o lairge amoonts o eften uiseful energy when the compoonds burn, explode, or decay back intae nitrogen gas. Seenthetically-produced ammonie an nitrates are key industrial fertilizers an fertilizer nitrates are key pollutants in causin the eutrophication o watter seestems.

Ootside thair major uises as fertilizers an energy-stores, nitrogen compounds are versatile organics. Nitrogen is pairt o materials as diverse as Kevlar fabric an cyanoacrylate "super" glue. Nitrogen is a constituent o molecules in every major pharmacological drog class, includin the antibiotics. Mony drugs are mimics or prodrugs o naitural nitrogen-containin signal molecules: for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin an nitroprusside control bluid pressur bi bein metabolized tae naitural nitric oxide. Plant alkaloids (eften defence chemicals) contain nitrogen bi defineetion, an sicweys mony notable nitrogen-containin drugs, sic as caffeine an morphine are aither alkaloids or synthetic mimics that act (as mony plant alkaloids dae) upon receptors o ainimal neurotransmitters (for example, seenthetic amphetamines).

Nitrogen occurs in aw organisms, primarily in amino acids (an sicweys proteins) an an aa in the nucleic acids (DNA an RNA). The human body contains aboot 3% bi wicht o nitrogen, the fowerth maist abundant element in the body efter oxygen, carbon, an hydrogen. The nitrogen cycle describes movement o the element frae the air, intae the biosphere an organic compounds, then back intae the atmosphere.

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