Caffeine

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Caffeine
Koffein - Caffeine.svg
Caffeine molecule
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: A
  • US: C (Risk nae ruled oot)
Dependence
liability
Low–moderate[1]
No addiction liability[1]
Routes o
admeenistration
oral, insufflation, enema, rectal, intravenous
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 99%
Protein bindin 25–36%[2]
Metabolism Primarily CYP1A2;[2]
Other enzymes: CYP2E1, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP3A4[2]
Biological hauf-life Adults: 3–7 hours[2]
Neonates: 65–130 hours[2]
Excretion urine (100%)
Identifiers
Synonyms Methyltheobromine
CAS Nummer
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
PDB ligand
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.329
Chemical and physical data
Formula C8H10N4O2
Molar mass 194.19 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)
Density 1.23 g/cm3
Meltin pynt 235 tae 238 °C (455 tae 460 °F) (anhydrous)
Bylin pynt 178 °C (352 °F) (sublimes)

Caffeine (/kæˈfn, ˈkæfn, ˈkæfɪn/) is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid an a stimulant drug.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 375. ISBN 9780071481274. Long-term caffeine use can lead to mild physical dependence. A withdrawal syndrome characterized by drowsiness, irritability, and headache typically lasts no longer than a day. True compulsive use of caffeine has not been documented. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 "Caffeine". DrugBank. University of Alberta. 16 September 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2014.  |section= ignored (help)