Nitric acid

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Nitric acid
Structural formula o nitric acid wi assortit dimensions
Baw-an-stick model o nitric acid
Baw-an-stick model o nitric acid
Resonance space-fillin model o nitric acid
Resonance space-fillin model o nitric acid
IUPAC name
Nitric acid
3D model (JSmol)
3DMet B00068
EC Nummer 231-714-2
Gmelin Reference 1576
MeSH Nitric+acid
RTECS nummer QU5775000
UN nummer 2031
Molar mass 63.01 g·mol−1
Appearance Colourless liquid
Density 1.5129 g cm−3
Meltin pynt −42 °C (−44 °F; 231 K)
Bylin pynt 83 °C (181 °F; 356 K)
Completely miscible
Acidity (pKa) -1.4[1]
Refractive index (nD) 1.397 (16.5 °C)
2.17 ± 0.02 D
Staundart molar
146 J·mol−1·K−1[2]
Std enthalpy o
−207 kJ·mol−1[2]
EU clessification Corrosive C Oxidising agent O
R-phrases R8 R35
S-phrases (S1/2) S23 S26 S36 S45
NFPA 704
Flash pynt Non-flammable
Relatit compoonds
Ither anions
Nitrous acid
Ither cations
Sodium nitrate
Potassium nitrate
Ammonium nitrate
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Nitric acid (HNO3), kent as aqua fortis an spirit of niter an aw, is a heichly corrosive strang mineral acid.

The pure compoond is colourless, but aulder saumples tend tae acquire a yellae cast due tae decomposeetion intae oxides o nitrogen an watter. Maist commercially available nitric acid has a concentration o 68% in water. Whan the solution conteens mair nor 86% HNO3, it is referred tae as fumin nitric acid. Dependin on the amoont o nitrogen dioxide present, fumin nitric acid is faur chairacterised as white fumin nitric acid at concentrations abuin 95%, or reid fumin nitric acid at concentrations abuin 86%.

Nitric acid is the primar reagent uised for nitration – the addeetion o a nitro group, teepically tae an organic molecule. While some resultin nitro compoonds are shock- an thermally-sensitive explosives, a few are stable eneuch tae be uised in muneetions an demoleetion, while ithers are still mair stable an uised as pigments in inks an dyes. Nitric acid is commonly uised as a strang oxidisin augent an aw.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Bell, R. P. (1973), The Proton in Chemistry (2nd ed.), Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
  2. a b Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A22. ISBN 0-618-94690-X.