Beryllium

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Beryllium, 4Be
Template:Infobox element/symbol-to-top-image/alt
Beryllium
Pronunciation/bəˈrɪliəm/ (bə-RIL-ee-əm)
Appearancewhite-gray metallic
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Be)9.0121831(5)[1]
Beryllium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium


Be

Mg
lithiumberylliumboron
Atomic nummer (Z)4
Groupgroup 2 (alkaline yird metals)
Periodperiod 2
Blocks-block
Element category  Alkaline yird metal
Electron confeeguration[He] 2s2
Electrons per shell2, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase at STPsolit
Meltin pynt1560 K ​(1287 °C, ​2349 °F)
Bylin pynt3243 K ​(2970 °C, ​5378 °F)
Density (near r.t.)1.85 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)1.690 g/cm3
Creetical pynt5205 K,  MPa (extrapolatit)
Heat o fusion12.2 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation292 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity16.443 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1462 1608 1791 2023 2327 2742
Atomic properties
Oxidation states0,[2] +1,[3] +2 (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.57
Ionisation energies
  • 1st: 899.5 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1757.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 14848.7 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 112 pm
Covalent radius96±3 pm
Van der Waals radius153 pm
Colour lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o beryllium
Ither properties
Naitural occurrenceprimordial
Creestal structurhexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed creestal structur for beryllium
Speed o soond thin rod12890 m/s (at r.t.)[4]
Thermal expansion11.3 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity200 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity36 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderindiamagnetic
Young's modulus287 GPa
Shear modulus132 GPa
Bulk modulus130 GPa
Poisson ratio0.032
Mohs haurdness5.5
Vickers haurdness1670 MPa
Brinell haurdness590–1320 MPa
CAS Nummer7440-41-7
History
DiskiveryLouis Nicolas Vauquelin (1797)
First isolationFriedrich Wöhler & Antoine Bussy (1828)
Main isotopes o beryllium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
7Be trace 53.12 d ε 7Li
γ
9Be 100% stable
10Be trace 1.36×106 y β 10B
| references

Beryllium is a chemical element wi seembol Be an atomic nummer 4. It is creaut throu stellar nucleosynthesis an is a relatively rare element in the universe. It is a divalent element that occurs naiturally anerly in combination wi ither elements an minerals. Notable gemstanes whilk contain beryllium include beryl (aquamarine, emerald) an chrysoberyl. As a free element, it is a steel-gray, strang, lichtwicht an brickle alkaline yird metal.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  2. Be(0) has been observed; see "Beryllium(0) Complex Found". ChemistryViews. 13 June 2016.
  3. "Beryllium: Beryllium(I) Hydride compound data" (PDF). bernath.uwaterloo.ca. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
  4. Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nt ed.). CRC Press. p. 14.48. ISBN 1439855110.
  5. Standard Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
  6. "Beryllium: Beryllium(I) Hydride compound data" (PDF). bernath.uwaterloo.ca. Retrieved 2007-12-10.