Beryllium

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Beryllium,  4Be
Be-140g.jpg
General properties
Appearance white-gray metallic
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 9.0121831(5)
Beryllium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium


Be

Mg
lithiumberylliumboron
Atomic nummer (Z) 4
Group group 2 (alkaline yird metals)
Period period 2
Element category   alkalineearthmetal
Block s-block
Electron confeeguration [He] 2s2
Electrons per shell
2, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 1560 K ​(1287 °C, ​2349 °F)
Bylin pynt 3243 K ​(2970 °C, ​5378 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 1.85 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 1.690 g/cm3
Creetical pynt 5205 K,  MPa (extrapolatit)
Heat o fusion 12.2 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 292 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 16.443 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1462 1608 1791 2023 2327 2742
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +2, +1[1] ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.57
Ionisation energies
  • 1st: 899.5 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1757.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 14848.7 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radius empirical: 112 pm
Covalent radius 96±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 153 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Creestal structurhexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed creestal structur for beryllium
Speed o soond thin rod 12890 m/s (at r.t.)[2]
Thermal expansion 11.3 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 200 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 36 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic
Young's modulus 287 GPa
Shear modulus 132 GPa
Bouk modulus 130 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.032
Mohs haurdness 5.5
Vickers haurdness 1670 MPa
Brinell haurdness 590–1320 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-41-7
History
Diskivery Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (1797)
First isolation Friedrich Wöhler & Antoine Bussy (1828)
Main isotopes o beryllium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
7Be trace 53.12 d ε 7Li
γ
9Be 100% stable
10Be trace 1.36×106 y β 10B
| references | in Wikidata

Beryllium is a chemical element wi seembol Be an atomic nummer 4. It is creaut throu stellar nucleosynthesis an is a relatively rare element in the universe. It is a divalent element that occurs naiturally anerly in combination wi ither elements an minerals. Notable gemstanes whilk contain beryllium include beryl (aquamarine, emerald) an chrysoberyl. As a free element, it is a steel-gray, strang, lichtwicht an brickle alkaline yird metal.

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