Lithium

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Lithium,  3Li
Lithium paraffin.jpg
Lithium flaitin in ile
General properties
Appearance silvery-white
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) [6.9386.997] conventional: 6.94
Lithium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
H

Li

Na
heliumlithiumberyllium
Atomic nummer (Z) 3
Group group 1 (alkali metals)
Period period 2
Element category   alkali metal
Block s-block
Electron confeeguration [He] 2s1
Electrons per shell
2, 1
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 453.65 K ​(180.50 °C, ​356.90 °F)
Bylin pynt 1603 K ​(1330 °C, ​2426 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 0.534 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 0.512 g/cm3
Creetical pynt 3220 K, 67 MPa (extrapolatit)
Heat o fusion 3.00 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 136 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.860 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 797 885 995 1144 1337 1610
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +1 ​(a strangly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 0.98
Ionisation energies
  • 1st: 520.2 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 7298.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 11815.0 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 152 pm
Covalent radius 128±7 pm
Van der Waals radius 182 pm
Coloyr lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o Lithium
Miscellanea
Creestal structurbody-centred cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic creestal structur for lithium
Speed o soond thin rod 6000 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 46 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 84.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 92.8 nΩ·m (at 20°C)
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic
Young's modulus 4.9 GPa
Shear modulus 4.2 GPa
Bouk modulus 11 GPa
Mohs haurdness 0.6
CAS Nummer 7439-93-2
History
Diskivery Johan August Arfwedson (1817)
First isolation William Thomas Brande (1821)
Main isotopes o lithium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
6Li 7.5% stable
7Li 92.5% stable
6Li content mey be as law as 3.75% in
naitural samples. 7Li would tharefor
hae a content o up tae 96.25%.
| references | in Wikidata

Lithium (frae Greek: λίθος, translit. lithos, lit. 'stane') is a chemical element wi seembol Li an atomic nummer 3. It is a saft, siller-white metal alangin tae the alkali metal group o chemical elements. Unner staundart condeetions, it is the lichtest metal annthe lichtest solit element. Lik aw alkali metals, lithium is heichly reactive an flammable, an is stored in meeneral ile. Whan cut, it exhibits a metallic luster, but moist air corrodes it quickly tae a dull sillery gray, then black tarnish. It niver occurs freely in naitur, but anly in (uisually ionic) compoonds, sic as pegmatitic minerals, that war ance the main soorce o lithium. Due tae its solubility as an ion, it is present in ocean watter an is commonly obteened frae brines. Lithium metal is isolatit electrolytically frae a mixtur o lithium chloride an potassium chloride.

The nucleus o the lithium atom verges on instability, syne the twa stable lithium isotopes foond in nature hae amang the lawest bindin energies per nucleon o aw stable nuclides. Acause o its relative nuclear instability, lithium is less common in the solar seestem nor 25 o the first 32 chemical elements even tho its nuclei are verra li ht: it is an exception tae the trend that hivier nuclei are less common.[1] For relatit raisons, lithium haes important uises in nuclear pheesics. The transmutation o lithium atoms tae helium in 1932 wis the first fully man-made nuclear reaction, an lithium deuteride serves as a fusion fuel in staged thermonuclear wappens.[2]

Lithium an its compoonds hae several industrial applications, includin heat-resistant gless an ceramics, lithium grease lubricants, flux additives for airn, steel an aluminium production, lithium batteries, an lithium-ion batteries. Thir uises consume mair than three quarters o lithium production.

Lithium is present in biological seestems in trace amoonts; its functions are uncertaint. Lithium sauts hae pruiven tae be uisefu as a muid-stabilising drog in the treatment o bipolar disorder in humans.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Numerical data frae: Lodders, Katharina (10 July 2003). "Solar System Abundances and Condensation Temperatures of the Elements" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. The American Astronomical Society. 591 (2): 1220–1247. Bibcode:2003ApJ...591.1220L. doi:10.1086/375492. Archived (PDF) frae the oreeginal on 7 November 2015.  Graphed at File:SolarSystemAbundances.jpg
  2. Nuclear Weapon Design. Federation of American Scientists (1998-10-21). fas.org