Bipolar disorder

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Bipolar disorder
Synonyms Bipolar affective disorder, bipolar illness, manic depression, manic depressive disorder, manic-depressive illness,[1] manic-depressive psychosis, circular insanity,[1] bipolar disease[2]
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Bipolar disorder is chairacterised bi episodes o depression an mania.
Specialty Psychiatry
Symptoms Periods o depression an elevatit muid[3][4]
Complications Suicide, sel-hairm[3]
Uisual onset 25 years auld[3]
Teeps Bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, ithers[4]
Causes Environmental an genetic[3]
Risk factors Faimily history, childhood abuse, lang-term stress[3]
Seemilar condeetions Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, personality disorders, schizophrenia, substance uise disorder[3]
Treatment Psychotherapy, medications[3]
Medication Lithium, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants[3]
Frequency 1-3%[3][5]

Bipolar disorder, previously kent as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods o depression an periods o elevatit muid.[3][4]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Edward Shorter (2005). A Historical Dictionary of Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 165–166. ISBN 978-0-19-517668-1. 
  2. Coyle, Nessa; Paice, Judith A. (2015). Oxford Textbook of Palliative Nursing (in Inglis). Oxford University Press, Incorporated. p. 623. ISBN 9780199332342. Archived frae the oreeginal on September 8, 2017. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Anderson IM, Haddad PM, Scott J (Dec 27, 2012). "Bipolar disorder". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 345: e8508. doi:10.1136/bmj.e8508. PMID 23271744. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 American Psychiatry Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 123–154. ISBN 0-89042-555-8. 
  5. Schmitt A, Malchow B, Hasan A, Falkai P (Februar 2014). "The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders". Front Neurosci. 8 (19). doi:10.3389/fnins.2014.00019. PMC 3920481Freely accessible. PMID 24574956.