Bipolar disorder

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Bipolar disorder
SynonymsBipolar affective disorder, bipolar illness, manic depression, manic depressive disorder, manic-depressive illness,[1] manic-depressive psychosis, circular insanity,[1] bipolar disease[2]
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Bipolar disorder is chairacterised bi episodes o depression an mania.
SymptomsPeriods o depression an elevatit muid[3][4]
ComplicationsSuicide, sel-hairm[3]
Uisual onset25 years auld[3]
TeepsBipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, ithers[4]
CausesEnvironmental an genetic[3]
Risk factorsFaimily history, childhood abuse, lang-term stress[3]
Seemilar condeetionsAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder, personality disorders, schizophrenia, substance uise disorder[3]
TreatmentPsychotherapy, medications[3]
MedicationLithium, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants[3]

Bipolar disorder, previously kent as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods o depression an periods o elevatit muid.[3][4]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Edward Shorter (2005). A Historical Dictionary of Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 165–166. ISBN 978-0-19-517668-1. 
  2. Coyle, Nessa; Paice, Judith A. (2015). Oxford Textbook of Palliative Nursing (in Inglis). Oxford University Press, Incorporated. p. 623. ISBN 9780199332342. Archived frae the oreeginal on September 8, 2017. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Anderson IM, Haddad PM, Scott J (Dec 27, 2012). "Bipolar disorder". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 345: e8508. doi:10.1136/bmj.e8508. PMID 23271744. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 American Psychiatry Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 123–154. ISBN 0-89042-555-8. 
  5. Schmitt A, Malchow B, Hasan A, Falkai P (February 2014). "The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders". Front Neurosci. 8 (19). doi:10.3389/fnins.2014.00019. PMC 3920481Freely accessible. PMID 24574956.