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Copper,  29Cu
Native copper (~4 cm in size)
General properties
Appearance reid-orange metallic luster
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 63.546(3)[1]
Copper in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium


Atomic nummer (Z) 29
Group group 11
Period period 4
Element category   transition metal
Block d-block
Electron confeeguration [Ar] 3d10 4s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 1
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 1357.77 K ​(1084.62 °C, ​1984.32 °F)
Bylin pynt 2835 K ​(2562 °C, ​4643 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 8.96 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 8.02 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 13.26 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 300.4 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.440 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1509 1661 1850 2089 2404 2834
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +1, +2, +3, +4 ​mildly basic oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.90
Ionisation energies
Atomic radius empirical: 128 pm
Covalent radius 132±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 140 pm
Coloyr lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o Capper
Creestal structurface-centred cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic creestal structur for copper
Speed o soond thin rod (annealed)
3810 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion 16.5 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 401 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 16.78 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic[2]
Young's modulus 110–128 GPa
Shear modulus 48 GPa
Bouk modulus 140 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.34
Mohs haurdness 3.0
Vickers haurdness 369 MPa
Brinell haurdness 35 HB = 874 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-50-8
Diskivery Middle Eastrens (9000 BC)
Main isotopes o copper
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
63Cu 69.15% stable
64Cu syn 12.700 h ε 64Ni
β 64Zn
65Cu 30.85% stable
67Cu syn 61.83 h β 67Zn
| references | in Wikidata

Capper is a chemical element in the periodic cairt that haes the seembol Cu (L.: Cuprum) an atomic nummer 29. It is a ductile metal wi vera heich thermal an electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface o pure capper has a reiddish-orange colour. Capper is uised as a conductor o heat an electricity, as a biggin material, an as a constituent o various metal alloys, sic as sterling siller uised in jewelry, cupronickel uised tae mak marine haurdware an cunyies, an constantan uised in strain gauges an thermocouples for temperatur meisurment.

Capper is ane o the few metals that can occur in naitur in a directly uisable metallic form (native metals). This led tae verra early human uise in several regions, frae c. 8000 BC. Thoosands o years later, it wis the first metal tae be smeltit frae sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC, the first metal tae be cast intae a shape in a mauld, c. 4000 BC an the first metal tae be purposefully alloyed wi anither metal, tin, tae creaut bronze, c. 3500 BC.[3]

In the Roman era, capper wis principally mined on Cyprus, the oreegin o the name o the metal, fae aes сyprium (metal o Cyprus), later corruptit tae сuprum (Latin), frae that the wirds derived.[4]

The commonly encoontert compoonds are capper(II) sauts, that eften impairt blue or green colours tae sic minerals as azurite, malachite, an turquoise, an hae been uised widely an historically as pigments.

Capper uised in biggins, uisually for ruifin, oxidises tae form a green verdigris (or patina). Capper is whiles uised in decorative airt, baith in its elemental metal form an in compoonds as pigments. Capper compoonds are used as bacteriostatic augents, fungicides, an wid preservatives.

Copper is essential tae aw leevin organisms as a trace dietar mineral acause it is a key constituent o the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs an crustaceans, capper is a constituent o the bluid pigment hemocyanin, replaced bi the airn-complexed hemoglobin in fish an ither vertebrates. In humans, capper is foond mainly in the liver, muscle, an bane.[5] The adult body contains between 1.4 and 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight.[6]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. 
  2. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  3. McHenry, Charles, ed. (1992). The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 3 (15 ed.). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. p. 612. ISBN 0-85229-553-7. 
  4. "Copper". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2018. 
  5. Johnson, MD PhD, Larry E., ed. (2008). "Copper". Merck Manual Home Health Handbook. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  6. "Copper in human health".