Vertebrate

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Vertebrates
Vertebrates.png
Individual organisms frae ilka main vertebrate group. Clockwise, stairtin frae tap left:

Fire Salamander, Saltwatter Crocodile, Soothren Cassowary, Black-an-rufous Giant Elephant Shrew, Ocean Sunfish

Scienteefic clessification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Cuvier, 1812
Simplified groopin (see text)

Vertebrates (/ˈvɛrtɘbrets/) is ainimals that is members o the subphylum Vertebrata /-ɑː/ (chordates wi rigbanes). Vertebrates include the owerwhelmin majority o the phylum Chordata, wi about 64,000 species descreivit the nou.[1] Vertebrates include the jawless fish, bane fish, sharks an rays, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, an birds. Extant vertebrates range in size frae the frog species Paedophryne amauensis, at as wee as 7.7 mm (0.3 inch), tae the blue whale, at up tae 33 m (110 ft). Vertebrates mak up aboot 4% o aw descreivit ainimal species; the rest is invertebrates, that lack rigbanes.

The vertebrates tradeetionally include the hagfish, that dinnae hae proper vertebrae, tho thair closest livin relatives, the lampreys, dae hae vertebrae.[2] Hagfish dae, however, possess a cranium. For this raison, the vertebrate subphylum is whiles referred tae as "Craniata" whan discussin morphologie. Molecular analysis syne 1992 haes suggested that the hagfish is maist closely relatit tae lampreys,[3] an sae vertebrates is in a monophyletic sense. Ithers consider them a sister group o vertebrates in the common taxon o Craniata.[4]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Jonathan E.M. Baillie; et al. (2004). "A Global Species Assessment". World Conservation Union. 
  2. Kuraku; Hoshiyama, D; Katoh, K; Suga, H; Miyata, T; et al. (December 1999). "Monophyly of Lampreys and Hagfishes Supported by Nuclear DNA–Coded Genes". Journal of Molecular Evolution 49 (6): 729–35. doi:10.1007/PL00006595. PMID 10594174. 
  3. Stock, David; Whitt GS (7). "Evidence from 18S ribosomal RNA sequences that lampreys and hagfish form a natural group". Science 257 (5071): 787–9. Bibcode:1992Sci...257..787S. doi:10.1126/science.1496398. PMID 1496398. Retrieved 22 November 2011.  Unkent parameter |month= ignored (help); Cite uises deprecatit parameter |coauthors= (help); Check date values in: |date=, |year= / |date= mismatch (help)
  4. Nicholls, Henry (10 September 2009). "Mouth to Mouth". Nature 461 (7261): 164–166. doi:10.1038/461164a. PMID 19741680. 

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