Alumeenium

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Alumeenium,  13Al
Aluminium-4.jpg
General properties
Appearance sillery gray metallic
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 26.9815385(7)
Alumeenium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
B

Al

Ga
magnesiumalumeeniumsilicon
Atomic nummer (Z) 13
Group group 13 (boron group)
Period period 3
Element category   post-transition metal
Block p-block
Electron confeeguration [Ne] 3s2 3p1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 3
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 933.47 K ​(660.32 °C, ​1220.58 °F)
Bylin pynt 2792 K ​(2519 °C, ​4566 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 2.70 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 2.375 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 10.71 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 294.0 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.200 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1482 1632 1817 2054 2364 2790
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2[1], 1[2] amphoteric oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.61
Ionisation energies
Atomic radius empirical: 143 pm
Covalent radius 121±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 184 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Creestal structurface-centred cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic creestal structur for alumeenium
Speed o soond thin rod (rowed) 5,000 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion 23.1 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 237 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 28.2 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[3]
Young's modulus 70 GPa
Shear modulus 26 GPa
Bouk modulus 76 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.35
Mohs haurdness 2.75
Vickers haurdness 167 MPa
Brinell haurdness 245 MPa
CAS Nummer 7429-90-5
History
Predeection Antoine Lavoisier[4] (1787)
First isolation Friedrich Wöhler[4] (1827)
Named bi Humphry Davy[4] (1807)
Main isotopes o alumeenium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct 26Al trace 7.17×105 y β+ 26Mg
ε 26Mg
γ -
27Al 100% stable
| references | in Wikidata

Alumeenium is a chemical element in the boron group wi seembol Al an atomic nummer 13. It is a sillery white, saft, ductile metal. Alumeenium is the third maist abundant element (efter oxygen an silicon), an the maist abundant metal, in the Yird's crust. It maks up aboot 8% bi wicht o the Yird's solit surface. Alumeenium metal is sae chemically reactive that native specimens are rare an leemitit tae extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is foond combined in ower 270 different minerals.[5] The chief ore o alumeenium is bauxite.

Alumeenium is remarkable for the metal's law density an for its ability tae resist corrosion due tae the phenomenon o passivation. Structural components made frae alumeenium an its alloys are vital tae the aerospace industry an are important in ither auries o transportation an structural materials. The maist uiseful compounds o alumeenium, at least on a wicht basis, are the oxides an sulfates.

Despite its prevalence in the environment, alumeenium salts are nae kent tae be uised bi ony fairm o life. In keepin wi its pervasiveness, alumeenium is well toleratit bi plants an ainimals.[6] Owin tae thair prevalence, potential beneficial (or itherwise) biological roles o aluminium compounds are o continuin interest.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Alumeenium monoxide
  2. Alumeenium iodide
  3. Lide, D. R. (2000). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". [[CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]] (PDF) (81st ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 0849304814.  URL–wikilink conflict (help)
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Aluminum". Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved 3 Mairch 2013. 
  5. Shakhashiri, B. Z. (17 Mairch 2008). "Chemical of the Week: Aluminum" (PDF). SciFun.org. University of Wisconsin. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  6. Helmboldt, O. (2007). "Aluminum Compounds, Inorganic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_527.pub2. 

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