Alumeenium

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Alumeenium,  13Al
Aluminium-4.jpg
General properties
Appearancesillery gray metallic
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart)26.9815384(3)[1]
Alumeenium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
B

Al

Ga
magnesiumalumeeniumsilicon
Atomic nummer (Z)13
Groupgroup 13 (boron group)
Periodperiod 3
Element category  post-transition metal
Blockp-block
Electron confeeguration[Ne] 3s2 3p1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 3
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP)solit
Meltin pynt933.47 K ​(660.32 °C, ​1220.58 °F)
Bylin pynt2792 K ​(2519 °C, ​4566 °F)
Density (near r.t.)2.70 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)2.375 g/cm3
Heat o fusion10.71 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation294.0 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity24.200 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1482 1632 1817 2054 2364 2790
Atomic properties
Oxidation states3, 2[2], 1[3] amphoteric oxide
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.61
Ionisation energies
Atomic radiusempirical: 143 pm
Covalent radius121±4 pm
Van der Waals radius184 pm
Coloyr lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o Alumeenium
Miscellanea
Creestal structurface-centred cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic creestal structur for alumeenium
Speed o soond thin rod(rowed) 5,000 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion23.1 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity237 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity28.2 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderinparamagnetic[4]
Young's modulus70 GPa
Shear modulus26 GPa
Bouk modulus76 GPa
Poisson ratio0.35
Mohs haurdness2.75
Vickers haurdness167 MPa
Brinell haurdness245 MPa
CAS Nummer7429-90-5
History
PredeectionAntoine Lavoisier[5] (1787)
First isolationFriedrich Wöhler[5] (1827)
Named biHumphry Davy[5] (1807)
Main isotopes o alumeenium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct 26Al trace 7.17×105 y β+ 26Mg
ε 26Mg
γ -
27Al 100% stable
| references | in Wikidata

Alumeenium is a chemical element in the boron group wi seembol Al an atomic nummer 13. It is a sillery white, saft, ductile metal. Alumeenium is the third maist abundant element (efter oxygen an silicon), an the maist abundant metal, in the Yird's crust. It maks up aboot 8% bi wicht o the Yird's solit surface. Alumeenium metal is sae chemically reactive that native specimens are rare an leemitit tae extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is foond combined in ower 270 different minerals.[6] The chief ore o alumeenium is bauxite.

Alumeenium is remarkable for the metal's law density an for its ability tae resist corrosion due tae the phenomenon o passivation. Structural components made frae alumeenium an its alloys are vital tae the aerospace industry an are important in ither auries o transportation an structural materials. The maist uiseful compounds o alumeenium, at least on a wicht basis, are the oxides an sulfates.

Despite its prevalence in the environment, alumeenium salts are nae kent tae be uised bi ony fairm o life. In keepin wi its pervasiveness, alumeenium is well toleratit bi plants an ainimals.[7] Owin tae thair prevalence, potential beneficial (or itherwise) biological roles o aluminium compounds are o continuin interest.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  2. Alumeenium monoxide
  3. Alumeenium iodide
  4. Lide, D. R. (2000). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". [[CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]] (PDF) (81st ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 0849304814. URL–wikilink conflict (help)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "Aluminum". Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
  6. Shakhashiri, B. Z. (17 March 2008). "Chemical of the Week: Aluminum" (PDF). SciFun.org. University of Wisconsin. Retrieved 2012-03-04.
  7. Helmboldt, O. (2007). "Aluminum Compounds, Inorganic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_527.pub2.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]