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Ceres (dwarf planet)

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Ceres ⚳
A view o Ceres in naitural colour, picturt bi the Dawn spacecraft in Mey 2015.[a]
Discovered biGiuseppe Piazzi
Discovery date1 Januar 1801
MPC designation1 Ceres
Pronunciation/ˈsɪərz/ SEER-eez
Named after
A899 OF; 1943 XB
dwarf planet
main belt
AdjectivesCererian /sɨˈrɪəri.ən/
or Cererean /sɛrɨˈriːən/[2]
Orbital chairactereestics[4]
Epoch 2013-Nov-04
(JD 2456600.5)
Aphelion445280000 km
(2.9765 AU)
Perihelion382520000 km
(2.5570 AU)
413910000 km
(2.7668 AU)
4.60 yr
1680.99 d
466.7 d
1.278 yr
17.882 km/s
Inclination10.593° tae Ecliptic
9.20° tae Invariable plane[3]
Proper orbital elements[5]
2.7670962 AU
78.193318 deg / yr
4.60397 yr
(1681.601 d)
Precession o perihelion
54.070272 arcsec / yr
Precession of the ascending node
−59.170034 arcsec / yr
Pheesical chairacteristics
Mean radius
476.2 ± ?? km[6]
Equatorial radius
487.3±1.8 km[7]
Polar radius
454.7±1.6 km[7]
Surface area
2850000 km2
Mass(9.43±0.07)×1020 kg,[8] 9.47±??[6]
0.00015 Yirds
0.0128 Muins
Mean density
2.077±0.036 g/cm3,[7] 2.09±??[6]
0.28 m/s2[6]
0.029 g
0.51 km/s[9]
0.3781 d
9.074170±0.000002 h[10]
≈ 3°[7]
North pole right ascension
19h 24m
North pole declination
Albedo0.090±0.0033 (V-band geometric)[11]
Surface temp. min mean max
Kelvin ? ≈ 168 K[15] 235 K[16]
Spectral teep
6.64[13] tae 9.34[14]
0.854″ to 0.339″

Ceres (minor-planet designation 1 Ceres; seembol: ⚳)[17] /ˈsɪərz/ (SEER-eez)[18] is the lairgest object in the asteroid belt, which lies atween the orbits o Maurs an Jupiter.

  1. This image wis taken bi the Dawn spacecraft on 2 Mey 2015, during a "rotation chairacterisation" orbit, 13,642 kilometre (8,477 mi) abuin the surface o Ceres. Veesible at centre an centre richt are twa bricht spots, a phenomenon common on Ceres, in Oxo an Haulani craters respectively. Ahuna Mons is an aa veesible in the image as a noticeable, bluff hill, seen juist richt o bottom.


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  1. Schmadel, Lutz (2003). Dictionary of minor planet names (5th ed.). Germany: Springer. p. 15. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  2. Simpson, D. P. (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5th ed.). London: Cassell Ltd. p. 883. ISBN 978-0-304-52257-6.
  3. "The MeanPlane (Invariable plane) of the Solar System passing through the barycenter". 3 Apryle 2009. Archived frae the original on 14 Mey 2009. Retrieved 10 Apryle 2009. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help) (produced with Solex 10 Archived 2008-03-01 at the Wayback Machine written by Aldo Vitagliano; see also Invariable plane)
  4. "1 Ceres". JPL Small-Body Database Browser. Archived frae the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2013. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  5. "AstDyS-2 Ceres Synthetic Proper Orbital Elements". Department of Mathematics, University of Pisa, Italy. Archived frae the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2011. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  6. a b c d "Ceres". NASA fact sheet. NASA. 2 Apryle 2014. Archived frae the original on 8 Februar 2015. Retrieved 4 Mey 2014.
  7. a b c d e f Thomas, P. C.; Parker, J. Wm.; McFadden, L. A.; et al. (2005). "Differentiation of the asteroid Ceres as revealed by its shape". Nature. 437 (7056): 224–226. Bibcode:2005Natur.437..224T. doi:10.1038/nature03938. PMID 16148926. Explicit use of et al. in: |author2= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors leet (link)
  8. Carry, Benoit; et al. (2007). "Near-Infrared Mapping and Physical Properties of the Dwarf-Planet Ceres" (PDF). Astronomy & Astrophysics. 478 (1): 235–244. arXiv:0711.1152. Bibcode:2008A&A...478..235C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078166. Archived frae the original on 30 Mey 2008. Retrieved 7 November 2014. Explicit use of et al. in: |author2= (help)CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  9. Calculated based on the known parameters
  10. Chamberlain, Matthew A.; Sykes, Mark V.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A. (2007). "Ceres lightcurve analysis – Period determination". Icarus. 188 (2): 451–456. Bibcode:2007Icar..188..451C. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.11.025.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors leet (link)
  11. a b Li, Jian-Yang; McFadden, Lucy A.; Parker, Joel Wm. (2006). "Photometric analysis of 1 Ceres and surface mapping from HST observations". Icarus. 182 (1): 143–160. Bibcode:2006Icar..182..143L. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.12.012. Retrieved 8 December 2007.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors leet (link)
  12. Rivkin, A. S.; Volquardsen, E. L.; Clark, B. E. (2006). "The surface composition of Ceres:Discovery of carbonates and iron-rich clays" (PDF). Icarus. 185 (2): 563–567. Bibcode:2006Icar..185..563R. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.08.022. Retrieved 8 December 2007.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors leet (link)
  13. Menzel, Donald H.; and Pasachoff, Jay M. (1983). A Field Guide to the Stars and Planets (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. p. 391. ISBN 978-0-395-34835-2.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors leet (link)
  14. APmag and AngSize generated with Horizons(Ephemeris: Observer Table: Quantities = 9,13,20,29) Archived 2021-02-04 at the Wayback Machine
  15. Angelo, Joseph A., Jr (2006). Encyclopedia of Space and Astronomy. New York: Infobase. p. 122. ISBN 0-8160-5330-8.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors leet (link)
  16. Saint-Pé, O.; Combes, N.; Rigaut F. (1993). "Ceres surface properties by high-resolution imaging from Earth". Icarus. 105 (2): 271–281. Bibcode:1993Icar..105..271S. doi:10.1006/icar.1993.1125.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors leet (link)
  17. JPL/NASA (22 Apryle 2015). "What is a Dwarf Planet?". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 19 Januar 2022.
  18. "Ceres". Dictionary.com. Random House, Inc. Archived frae the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2007. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)