Jupiter is the fift planet frae the Sun an the lairgest planet in the Solar Seestem. It is a gas giant wi mass ane-thoosandt that o the Sun but is twa an a hauf times the mass o aw the ither planets in the Solar Seestem combined. Jupiter is classified as a gas giant alang wi Saturn, Uranus an Neptune. Thegither, these fower planets are sometimes referred tae as the Jovian or ooter planets. The planet wis kent bi astronomers o auncient times, an wis associatit wi the meethology an releegious beliefs o mony culturs. The Romans named the planet efter the Roman godJupiter. When viewed frae Yird, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude o −2.94, bricht enough tae cast shadows, an makin it on average the third-brichtest object in the nicht sky efter the Moon an Venus. (Mars can briefly match Jupiter's brichtness at certain pynts in its orbit.)
Jupiter is primarily componed o hydrogen wi a quarter o its mass bein helium, although helium anly comprises aboot a tent o the nummer o molecules. It mey an aa hae a rocky core o hivier elements, but like the ither gas giants, Jupiter lacks a well-defined solid surface. Acause o its rapid rotation, the planet's shape is that o an oblate spheroid (it possesses a slicht but noticeable bulge aroond the equator). The ooter atmosphere is visibly segregatit intae several bands at different latitudes, resultin in turbulence an stairms alang their interactin boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Reid Spot, a giant stairm that is kent tae hae existit syne at least the 17t century when it wis first seen bi telescope. Surroondin Jupiter is a faint planetar ring seestem an a pouerful magnetosphere. Thare are an aa at least 67 muins, includin the fower lairge muins cried the Galilean muins that wur first discovered bi Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the lairgest o these muins, haes a diameter greater than that o the planet Mercury.
Jupiter haes been explored on several occasions bi robotic spacecraft, maist notably durin the early Pioneer an Voyager flyby missions an later bi the Galileo orbiter. The maist recent probe tae veesit Jupiter wis the Pluto-boond New Horizons spacecraft in late Februar 2007. The probe uised the gravity frae Jupiter tae increase its speed. Futur tairgets for exploration in the Jovian seestem include the possible ice-covered liquid ocean on the muin Europa.
↑As of 2008, the largest known planet outside the Solar System is TrES-4.
↑De Crespigny, Rafe. "Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling"(PDF). Asian studies, Online Publications. Retrieved 1 May 2012. Xu Huang apparently complained that the astronomy office had failed to give them proper emphasis to the eclipse and to other portents, including the movement of the planet Jupiter (taisui). At his instigation, Chen Shou/Yuan was summoned and questioned, and it was under this pressure that his advice implicated Liang Ji.
↑Stuart Ross Taylor (2001). Solar system evolution: a new perspective : an inquiry into the chemical composition, origin, and evolution of the solar system (2nd, illus., revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 208. ISBN0-521-64130-6.