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Vladimir Putin

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Vladimir Putin
Владимир Путин
Preses o Roushie
Assumed office
7 Mey 2012
Prime MeenisterViktor Zubkov
Dmitry Medvedev
Precedit biDmitry Medvedev
In office
7 Mey 2000 – 7 Mey 2008
Acting: 31 December 1999 – 7 Mey 2000
Prime MeenisterMikhail Kasyanov
Mikhail Fradkov
Viktor Zubkov
Precedit biBoris Yeltsin
Succeedit biDmitry Medvedev
Prime Meenister o Roushie
In office
8 Mey 2008 – 7 Mey 2012
PresesDmitry Medvedev
DeputeIgor Shuvalov
Precedit biViktor Zubkov
Succeedit biViktor Zubkov
In office
9 August 1999 – 7 Mey 2000
Acting: 9 August 1999 – 16 August 1999
PresesBoris Yeltsin
DeputeViktor Khristenko
Mikhail Kasyanov
Precedit biSergei Stepashin
Succeedit biMikhail Kasyanov
Leader o Unitit Roushie
In office
1 Januar 2008 – 30 Mey 2012
Precedit biBoris Gryzlov
Succeedit biDmitry Medvedev
Director o the Federal Security Service
In office
25 Julie 1998 – 29 Mairch 1999
PresesBoris Yeltsin
Precedit biNikolay Kovalyov
Succeedit biNikolai Patrushev
Personal details
BornVladimir Vladimirovich Putin
(1952-10-07) 7 October 1952 (age 71)
Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Poleetical pairtyCommunist Pairty o the Soviet Union (1975-1991)
Oor Hame – Roushie (1995–1999)
Unity (1999–2001)
Independent (1991–1995; 2001–2008)
Unitit Roushie (2008–present)
Ither poleetical
Fowk's Front for Roushie (2011–present)
Spoose(s)Lyudmila Putina (m. 1983–2013)
Alma materLeningrad State Varsity
ReligionRoushie Orthodoxy
WabsteidOffeecial wabsteid
Militar service
Allegiance Soviet Union
Years o service1975–1991
RankLieutenant Colonel

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Roushie: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин; born 7 October 1952) is a Roushie politeecian that is seicont Preses o the Roushie Federation the nou an wis the Prime Meenister o Roushie, as weel as chairman o Unitit Roushie an Chairman o the Cooncil o Meenisters o the Union State. He became actin Preses on 31 December 1999, whan preses Boris Yeltsin resigned in a surprisin muive. Putin wan the 2000 presidential election an in 2004 he wis re-elected for a seicont term lastin till 7 Mey 2008. He wis reelect in 2012.

For 16 year Putin wis an officer in the KGB, risin tae the rank o Lieutenant Colonel afore he retired tae enter politics in his native Saunt Petersburg in 1991. He flittit tae Moscow in 1996 an jyned Preses Boris Yeltsin's admeenistration whaur he rose tite, acomin Actin Preses on 31 December 1999 whan Yeltsin unexpectit resigned. Putin won the subsequent 2000 presidential election, despite widespread accusations o vote-riggin,[1] an wis reelectit in 2004. Acause o constitutionally mandatit term leemits, Putin wis ineligible tae run for a third consecutive presidential term in 2008. Dmitry Medvedev won the 2008 presidential election an appyntit Putin as Prime Meenister, beginnin a period o sae-caed "tandemocracy".[2] In September 2011, follaein a chynge in the law extendin the presidential term frae fower year tae sax,[3] Putin annoonced that he wad seek a third, non-consecutive term as Preses in the 2012 presidential election, an announcement that led tae lairge-scale protests in mony Roushie ceeties. In Mairch 2012, he won the election, that wis criticized for procedural irregularities, an is servin a sax-year term.[4][5]

Mony o Putin's actions are regardit bi the domestic opposeetion an foreign observers as undemocratic.[6] The 2011 Democracy Index statit that Roushie wis in "a lang process o regression [that] culminatit in a move frae a hybrid tae an authoritarian regime" in view o Putin's candidacy an flawed pairlamentary elections.[7] In 2014, Roushie wis temporarily suspendit frae the G8 group as a result o its annexation o Crimea.[8][9]

During Putin's first premiership an presidency (1999–2008) real incomes in Roushie rose bi a factor o 2.5, while real wages mair nor tripled; unemployment an poverty mair nor halved. Roushies' self-assessed life satisfaction rose signeeficantly an aa.[10] Putin's first presidency wis markit bi heich economic growth: the Roushie economy grew for aicht year, seein GDP increase bi 72% in PPP (as for nominal GDP, 600%).[10][11][12][13][14] This growth wis a combined result o the 2000s commodities boom, heich ile prices, as weel as prudent economic an fiscal policies.[15][16]

As Roushie's preses, Putin an the Federal Assembly passed intae law a flat income tax o 13%, a reduced profits tax, an new land an legal codes.[17][18] As Prime Meenister, Putin owersaw lairge-scale militar an polis reform. His energy policy haes affirmed Roushie's poseetion as an energy superpouer.[19][20] Putin supportit heich-tech industries lik the nuclear an defence industries. A rise in foreign investment[21] contreibutit tae a boom in such sectors as the automotive industry. Housamever, caipital investment recently dropped 2.5% acause o the crisis in Ukraine accordin tae forecasts bi economists frae the IMF.[22]


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  1. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/919928.stm
  2. Hale, Henry E.; Timothy J. Colton (8 September 2009). "Russians and the Putin-Medvedev "Tandemocracy": A Survey-Based Portrait of the 2007–08 Election Season" (PDF). The National Council for Eurasian and East European Research. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. Retrieved 15 Mairch 2012.
  3. Vasilyeva, Natallya. "Putin claims to support term limits as he readies to take helm for 3rd time" Archived 2014-08-28 at the Wayback Machine, China Post (12 April 2012).
  4. "Putin Hails Vote Victory, Opponents Cry Foul". RIA Novosti. Archived frae the original on 31 Julie 2013. Retrieved 22 Juin 2013.
  5. "Elections in Russia: World Awaits for Putin to Reclaim the Kremlin". The World Reporter. March 2012. Archived frae the original on 2019-10-09. Retrieved March 2012. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  6. Treisman, D. "Is Russia's Experiment with Democracy Over?". UCLA International Institute. Archived frae the original on 11 November 2004. Retrieved 31 December 2007.
  7. Democracy Index 2011, http://www.sida.se/Global/About%20Sida/Så%20arbetar%20vi/EIU_Democracy_Index_Dec2011.pdf Archived 2012-06-17 at the Wayback Machine
  8. U.S., other powers kick Russia out of G8, CNN
  9. "Russia Temporarily Kicked Out Of G8 Club Of Rich Countries". Business Insider. 18 Juin 2013. Retrieved 25 Mairch 2014.
  10. a b Guriev, Sergei; Tsyvinski, Aleh (2010). "Challenges Facing the Russian Economy after the Crisis". In Anders Åslund, Sergei Guriev, Andrew C. Kuchins (eds.). Russia After the Global Economic Crisis. Peterson Institute for International Economics; Centre for Strategic and International Studies; New Economic School. pp. 12–13. ISBN 9780881324976. Cite uses deprecated parameter |editors= (help)
  11. "Russians weigh Putin's protégé". Moscow. Associated Press. 3 Mey 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
  12. of Russia from 1992 to 2007 International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 12 May 2008
  13. "Russia's economy under Vladimir Putin: achievements and failures". RIA Novosti. Archived frae the original on 13 September 2013. Retrieved 22 Juin 2013.
  14. Putin's Economy – Eight Years On. Russia Profile, 15 August 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2008
  15. Putin: Russia's Choice, (Routledge 2007), by Richard Sakwa, Chapter 9
  16. Fragile Empire: How Russia Fell In and Out of Love with Vladimir Putin, Yale University Press (2013), by Ben Judah, page 17
  17. "The Putin Paradox". Americanprogress.org. 24 Juin 2004. Archived frae the original on 13 Mey 2012. Retrieved 2 Mairch 2010.
  18. Sharlet, Robert (2005). "In Search of the Rule of Law". In White, Gitelman, Sakwa (ed.). Developments in Russian Politics. 6. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3522-0.CS1 maint: multiple names: eeditors leet (link)
  19. How Sustainable is Russia's Future as an Energy Superpower? Archived 2016-07-12 at the Wayback Machine, by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 16 March 2006
  20. Russia: The 21st Century's Energy Superpower? Archived 2006-10-13 at the Wayback Machine, by Fiona Hill, The Brookings Institution, 5 October 2002
  21. ПОСТУПЛЕНИЕ ИНОСТРАННЫХ ИНВЕСТИЦИЙ ПО ТИПАМ Archived 2022-02-13 at the Wayback Machine Rosstat
  22. "IMF cuts Russia 2014 growth outlook, cites Ukraine risk". Reuters. Archived frae the original on 14 Februar 2015. Retrieved 28 Februar 2015.