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Podgorica is located in Montenegro
Location in Montenegro
Coordinates: 42°28′N 19°16′E / 42.467°N 19.267°E / 42.467; 19.267Coordinates: 42°28′N 19°16′E / 42.467°N 19.267°E / 42.467; 19.267
Kintra Montenegro
FoonditAfore 11t century
 • MayorMiomir Mugoša (DPS)
 • Metro
1441 km2 (556 sq mi)
44 m (144 ft)
 • Ceety150,977
 • Metro
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
Postal code
Area code(s)+382 20
License platePG

Podgorica (/ˈpɒdɡərtsə/ POD-gorr-ee-tsə;[5] Serbie: Podgorica, Подгорица [pǒdgoritsa], lit. "unner the smaa hill"), is the caipital an lairgest ceety o Montenegro.

Podgorica's favourable poseetion at the confluence o the Ribnica an Morača rivers an the meetin pynt o the fertile Zeta Plain an Bjelopavlići Valley haes encouraged dounset. The ceety is close tae winter ski centres in the north an seaside resorts on the Adriatic Sea.

A census in 2003 put the ceety's population at 136,473. The Podgorica Municipality contains 10.4% o Montenegro's territory an 27.3% o its population. It is the administrative centre o Montenegro an its economic, cultural an educational focus.

Etymology[eedit | eedit soorce]

The name Podgorica means "unner the Gorica" in the Montenegrin leid. Gorica/goritsa (meanin "little muntain") is the name o the hill that overluiks the ceety centre.

Some three kilometres (1.9 mile) north-wast o Podgorica lie the ruins o Doclea, a toun kent in Greek, pre-Roman an Roman times. The Roman Emperor Diocletian came frae this region. In later centuries, Romans "correctit" the name tae Dioclea, guessin wrongly that an "i" haed been lost in vulgar speech. "Duklja" is the later (Slavic) version o that wird.

When foondit (afore the 11t century), the toun wis cried Birziminium. In the Middle Ages, it wis kent as Ribnica. The name Podgorica wis uised frae 1326. Frae 1946 tae 1992, the ceety wis named Titograd in honour o Josip Broz Tito, the umwhile Preses o Yugoslavie.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sahat kula, an Ottoman clock touer, ane o the very few Ottoman laundmerks that survived WW2 bombings

Podgorica is at the crossroads o several heestorically important routes, near the rivers Zeta, Morača, Cijevna, Ribnica, an Sitnica, in the valley o Skadar lake an near the Adriatic Sea, in fertile lawlands wi favourable climate. The earliest human settlements wur in prehistory: the auldest physical remains ar frae the late Stone Age. In the Illyrian age, the aurie atween the Zeta an Bjelopavlići valleys wis occupied bi twa Illyrian tribes, the Labeates an the Docleats. 3 km northwast o the day's Podgorica an which reflectit the local terrain. The population o the ceety wis 8,000-10,000, in which aw core urban issues wur resolved. The hie population density (in an aurie o aboot 10 km/6 mi radius) wis made possible bi the geographical poseetion, favourable climate an economic conditions an bi the defensive poseetions that wur o great importance at that time.

Frae the 5t century, wi the arrival o the first Slavic an Avar tribes an the beginnin o the break-up o the Roman Empire, the aurie bore witness tae mony noteworthy events. Wi time, the fortifications ceased thair function an new touns wur biggit. Slavic groups in the aurie wur in constant war wi Byzantium an tendit tae establish a new state. The result wis establishment o a new dounset that wis probably named efter the river Ribnica on whose banks it wis biggit. The first mention o Ribnica is durin the rule o the Serbien royal faimily o the Nemanjići. The importance o Ribnica wis its poseetion as crossroads in communications wi the wast. In occupyin these auries, the Slavs creatit a new state an developed thair awn culture an airt, acceptable tae the mediaeval kirk an feudal class.

The name Podgorica wis first mentioned in 1326 in a court document o the Kotor archives. The ceety wis economically strang: trade routes atween Dubrovnik an the State o Nemanjici, well developed at that time, wur maintained via the road that led tae Podgorica throu Trebinje an Nikšić. As a busy crossroads, Podgorica wis a vibrant regional centre o trade an communication. This boostit its development, economic pouer, military strength an strategic importance. The Turkish occupation o Podgorica in 1474 interruptit its economic, cultural an airtistic development. The Turks biggit a lairge fortress in Podgorica an the existin dounset, wi its heichly developed merchant connections, became the main defensive an attackin bastion against rebellious tribes. The fortified ceety, wi touers, gates an defensive ramparts, enabled the Turks tae resist aw attacks. In 1864, Podgorica became a tounship (kaza) o İşkodra vilayet cried Böğürtlen (Turkish "Blackberry"). It wis an aa kent Burguriçe in Albanian.

In accordance wi the decision o the Berlin Congress in 1878, Podgorica wis integratit intae Montenegro, markin the end o fower centuries o Turkish occupation, an the beginnin o a new era in the development o Podgorica an Montenegro. The ceety developed quickly an became a strang marketplace. The first forms o caipital concentration wur seen. In 1904, Zetska savings bank, the first significant financial institution, wis formed. It wad suin grow intae Podgorička bank. Roads wur biggit tae aw neighbourin touns an, in 1902, a tobacco plant became Podgorica's first significant commercial company.

Warld War I merked the end o dynamic development for Podgorica, bi then the lairgest ceety in the newly proclaimed Kinrick o Montenegro. Podgorica wis occupied, as wis the rest o the kintra, bi Austrick-Hungary frae 1916 tae 1918. Efter the liberation bi the allies in 1918, a controversial Podgorica Assembly wis held at Podgorica Tobacco Monopoly building. The assembly merked the end o Montenegrin statehood, as Montenegro wis merged wi Serbie an incorporatit in the Kinrick o Yugoslavia. Atween the twa warld wars, the population o Podgorica wis aboot 13,000.

Podgorica suffered heavily durin Warld War II; the ceety wis bombed ower 70 times throughoot the course o the war an razed tae the grund, causin the daiths o ower 4,100 fowk. The ceety wis liberatit on December 19, 1944.

Unner the name o Titograd, the ceety became the caipital o the Socialist Republic o Montenegro on 13 Julie 1946. A period o unprecedentit expansion followed, which merked the SFRY era: the population increased dramatically, the ceety wis heavily industrialized, infrastructure wis improved, an heal, educational, an cultural institutions wur foondit. The ceety rapidly became the commercial, socio-economic an cultural centre o the kintra. The progress haltit again when the break-up o SFRY began in the 1990s. The name o Podgorica wis reinstatit on Apryle 2, 1992.

St. Peter o Cetinje square

The destructive Yugoslav wars bypassed Montenegro, but the entire kintra wis greatly affectit economically. A period o severe economic stagnation lastit throuoot the 1990s. The economy began tae recover in the early years o the 21st century, when Podgorica began tae emerge as a modren, pro-wastren ceety. Followin the successfu independence referendum in Mey 2006, Podgorica became the offeecial caipital o an independent state, boostin its status as a regional centre an raisin its economic prospects.

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns – sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Podgorica is twinned wi:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Montenegrin 2011 census". Monstat. 2011.
  2. "Official portal of City of Skopje – Skopje Sister Cities". © 2006–2009 City of Skopje. Archived frae the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 14 Julie 2009. freemit airtin in |publisher= (help)
  3. "Twinning Cities: International Relations" (PDF). Municipality of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 16 Februar 2008. Retrieved 23 Juin 2009.
  4. "Yerevan Municipality – Sister Cities". © 2005–2009 www.yerevan.am. Archived frae the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 22 Juin 2009. freemit airtin in |publisher= (help)
  5. Wells, John C. (2000). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0. Retrieved 31 Mey 2011.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Travel guide tae Podgorica frae Wikivoyage