Clan Stewart

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Clan Stewart
Clan member crest badge - Clan Stewart.svg
Crest: A pelican Argent, winged Or, in her nest feedin her young, Proper.
Motto Virescit vulnere virtus
Region Hielands
Destrict Galloway
Plant badge Thistle
Clan Stewart has no chief, and is an armigerous clan

Clan Stewart (Gaelic: Stiùbhard) is a Hieland Scots clan. The clan is recognisit bi Court of the Lord Lyon, housomeivver it does no hae a clan chief recognised bi the Lord Lyon. Acause the clan haes nae chief it can be considered an airmigerous clan; housomeivver the Earls o Gallowa are nou considered tae be the principal branch o this Clan, an the crest an motto o The Earls o Gallowa's airms ar uised in the Clan Stewart crest badge. The Court o the Lord Lyon recognises twa ither 'Stewart' clans, Clan Stuart o Bute an Clan Stewart o Appin. Clan Stuart o Bute is the anerlie 'Stewart' clan at present which haes a recognised chief.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Oreegins o the clan[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Stewart faimily records its traditional descent frae Banquo, Thane o Lochaber, who maks an appearance as a character in William Shakespeare's Macbeth. Historically, housomeivver, the faimily appears tae be descendit frae a mediaeval faimily who wur seneschals o Dol in Breetany, the earliest recordit being Flaald.[1][2]

They acquired launds in Ingland efter the Norman conquest, an muivit tae Scotland wi mony ither Anglo-Norman faimilies when David I ascendit tae the throne o Scotland. The faimily wis grantit extensive estates in Renfrewshire an in East Lowden an the office of Heich Steward o Scotland wis made hereditary in the faimily.[2]

Walter, the son of Alan or Fitz-alan was the founder of the royal family of Stewarts. He was the first of the family to establish himself in Scotland. Walter's elder brother called William was the progenitor of the family of Fitzalan who were the Earls of Arundel. Their father who was a Norman married soon after the Norman Conquest. He married the daughter of Warine, sheriff of Shropshire. He acquired the manor of Ostvestrie or Oswestry on the Welsh border. On the death of King Henry I of England in 1135 Walter and William supported the claims of Empress Maud and in doing so raised themselves high in the favour of her uncle King David I of Scotland.[2]

In 1141 Walter accompanied King David I to retire in Scotland on promises made to him bi the Scottish monarch which were faithfully fulfilled. His brother William however remained in England an wis rewairdit bi Empress Maud's son, Keeng Henry II o Ingland.[2]

In Scotland Walter obtained frae Keeng David I o Scotland lairge grants o laund an property in Renfrewshire as well as in mony ither places, thegither wi the hereditary office of Senescallus Scotiae, Heich Steward o Scotland. Frae this title Walter's grandson, cried Walter an aw, teuk the name Stewart, which was forever efterwairds retained bi the faimily. This Walter wis rewairdit launds bi Keeng Malcolm IV o Scotland an aw. Walter is celebratit as the foonder o Paisley Monastery in 1163 in the barony o Renfrew. Walter marriet Eschina de Londonia, Lady o Moll, in Roxburghshire. Walter dee'd in 1177, he wis succeedit bi his son Alan Stewart.[2]

Alan dee'd in 1204 leavin a son cried Walter who wis appointit bi Keeng Alexander II o Scotland as justiciary o Scotland in addition tae the hereditary office o heich steward. This Walter dee'd in 1246 leavin fower sons an three dochters. The third son cried Walter wis Earl o Menteith jure uxoris. The eldest son, cried Alexander marriet Jean, the dochter an heiress of James Lord of Bute. In her richt their son James Stewart seizit baith the Isle o Bute an Isle o Arran.[2]

Wars o Scots Unthirldom[eedit | eedit soorce]

Alexander Stewart, 4t Heich Steward o Scotland haed twa sons, James an John. The elder, James wad succeed Alexander as chief o the clan. Durin the Wars o Scos Unthirldom the Clan Stewart gave hintle support tae Keeng Robert the Bruce. Alexander's seicont son, kent as Sir John Stewart o Bonkyll, wis killed at the Battle o Falkirk (1298), fechtin in support o William Wallace.[2]

Alexander's seicont son, John, who wis killed at the Battle o Fawkirk in 1298 haed seiven sons. The eldest wis Sir Alexander who wis the ancestor tae the Stewarts who wur Earls o Angus. The seicont son wis Sir Alan Stewart o Dreghorn whose faimily became the Earls an Dukes o Lennox. The third son wis Walter whose faimily wur the Earls o Gallowa. The fowert son wis Sir James whose faimily wure the Earls o Atholl, Earl o Buchan an Earl o Traquair. The fift son Sir John Stewart wis killed at the Battle o Halidon Hill in 1333. The saxt son Sir Hugh Stewart focht in Ireland unner Edward Bruce, the younger brither o Keeng Robert the Bruce. The seivent son wis Sir Robert Stewart o Daldowie (NO the Lanarkshire Daldowie).[2]

James Stewart, the eldest son o Alexander Stewart, succeeded as the fift heich steward in 1283. On the daith o Keeng Alexander III o Scotland in 1286, James Stewart wis ane o sax magnates o Scotland chosen tae act as regents o the kinrick. James dee'd in the service o Robert the Bruce in 1309. James's son Walter became the saxt heich steward. This Walter Stewart at the age o juist twinty-ane years commandit the left wing o the Scos airmy, alang wi Sir James Douglas at the Battle o Bannockburn in 1314. Robert the Bruce an his wife Isabella's anerlie child, Marjorie Bruce, marriet Walter Stewart, 6t Heich Steward o Scotland (1293–1326), an frae him the Ryal Hoose o Stewart are descendit.[2]

Ryal Hoose[eedit | eedit soorce]

Walter Stewart's son cried Robert the seivent laird-heich steward haed been declared heir tae the throne o Scotland in 1318. Housomeivver the birth o a son tae Robert the Bruce in 1326 interruptit Robert Stewart's prospects for a time. Robert Stewart receivit frae his grandfather lairge amoonts o laund in Kintyre. During the lang an disastrous reign o Keeng David II o Scotland, Robert Stewart actit a patriotic pairt in the defence o the kinrick. On the daith o Keeng David II athout issue on 22 Februar 1371 Robert Stewart, at the age o fifty five, succeedit tae the croun o Scotland as Keeng Robert II o Scotland. He wis the first o the Stewart faimily tae ascend tae the throne o Scotland.[2]

The royal line of male Stewarts continued uninterrupted until the reign of Mary I, Queen o Scots. Mary's son James VI and descendents, monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland from 1603 to 1714, continued to use the surname Stuart as they were descended from Mary's second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley a member of the clan Stewart of Darnley. It was around this time that the second and interchangeable spelling of the name Stuart became common allegedly through the French influence of Mary's upbringing. Members of this Stewart line were later found in Kintyre, Argyll from the early 1600's. Living members of this family (discovered after yDNA matching, approved by the Stewart Society in Edinburgh) can be found in the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States.[2][3] The Stuarts held the throne of Scotland and after the Union of the Crowns in 1603 they held the throne of England too. This was held until the death of Queen Anne o Great Breetain in 1714, the last monarch from the Hoose o Stuart. Anne was succeeded by her cousin, King George I of Great Britain of the House of Hanover. The present Royal Family still has Stuart blood links.[2]

Sauchieburn an Prince James Stewart[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Battle o Sauchieburn wis focht on 11 Juin 1488, at the side of Sauchie Burn, a brook aboot twa miles (3 km) sooth o Stirlin, Scotland. The battle wis focht atween as mony as 30,000 troops o Keeng James III an some 18,000 troops raised bi Scottis nobles who favoured the Keeng's then-15-year-auld son, Prince James. Prince James ascendit tae the throne, an reigned as James IV for twinty-five years.[2]

In 1489 John Stewart, 1st Earl o Lennox rebelled against King James IV. James respondit bi bringin the cannon Mons Meg frae Edinburgh, an bombardin Crookston Castle seat o the Earl o Lennox, virtually destroyin its wastren end, an ensurin a quick surrender.[2]

16t century[eedit | eedit soorce]

Clan Stewart tartan, as published in 1842 in the dubious Vestiarium Scoticum.

During the 16th century the Anglo-Scottish Wars took place under the reign of the Stewarts. England and Scotland had fought during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries including the Wars of Scottish Independence at the beginning of the 14th century. In most cases, one country had attempted to take advantage of weakness or instability in the other. For example, King James II of Scotland had attempted to regain Berwick during the Wars of the Roses in England. Battles with England from this time included: the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513, the Battle of Solway Moss in 1542, the Battle of Ancrum Moor in 1545 and the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547.[2]

Patrick Rattray, chief o Clan Rattray wis intimidated into giving up the Barony by John Stewart, who was then the Earl o Atholl. Through the marriage of Patrick’s niece into the family, the Earl took control of the Barony of Rattray and also took control of her sister. Thus Patrick was driven from his estate in 1516. He began the construction of Craighall a grand building perched on a 200 feet (61 m) rock above the River Ericht. The stronghold of Craighall could not protect him from John Stewart the Earl of Atholl though and he was murdered in 1533.

Sir John’s son Patrick defended Castle Rattray against the Stewarts of Atholl but was forced to burn the Castle and escape in the confusion. The Rattrays then withdrew to Kynballoch, where Patrick was later murdered by the 3rd Earl of Atholl’s men whilst claiming sanctuary in his own Chapel.[2]

Also in the 16th century an internal Scottish Civil War took place between the Royal House of Stuarts and Mary I, Queen o Scots. The Battle o Langside, fought on May 13, 1568, was one of the more unusual contests in Scottish history, bearing a superficial resemblance to a grand family quarrel, in which a mother fought her brother who was defending the rights of her infant son. In 1567 Mary Queen of Scots' short period of personal rule ended in recrimination, intrigue and disaster when she was forced to abdicate in favour of James VI, her infant son. Mary was sent into captivity in Loch Leven Castle, while her Protestant half-brother, James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray was appointed Regent on behalf of his nephew. In early May 1568 Mary escaped, heading west to the country of the Clan Hamilton, high among her remaining supporters, with the determination to restore her rights as queen.[2]

Sir John Rattray's third son Silvester succeeded his murdered brother, Stewart of Atholl continued to intimidate the family however and Silvester petitioned the king for legal recognition as heir. He was succeeded by his son, David Rattray of Craighall. George The laird’s eldest son wis murthered in 1592 an aw.

In 1600 Archibald MacAlister, chief o Clan MacAlister along with Angus Og MacDonald, a MacDonald chief carriet oot an attack on the inhabitants o the Isle o Bute against the Clan Stuart. A year later an Archibald MacAlister an Angus Og MacDonald wur accused o being rebels, chairgit wi treason against the ryal hoose an hanged in Edinburgh Tollbooth.[2]

Clan Stewart wur bitter enemies wi the infamous Earls o Angus, kent as the Red Douglases o Clan Douglas.[2]

17t century an the Ceevil War[eedit | eedit soorce]

undiffered arms of stewart
Stewart o Stewart
Arms of Stuart of Albany
Stuart o Albany
Arms of Stuart of Buchan
Stuart o Buchan
Arms of Stewart of Barclye
Stewart o Barclye
Arms of Stewart of Garlies
Stewart o Garlies
Arms of Stewart of Minto
Stewart o Minto
Arms of Stewart of Atholl
Stewart o Atholl
Arms of Stewart of Bute
Stewart o Bute
Arms of Stuart of Bute
Stuart o Bute
Arms of Stewart of Ardvorlich
Stewart o Ardvorlich
Arms of Stewart of Physgill
Stewart o Physgill
Arms of Stewart of Rothesay
Stewart o Rothesay

Scotland in the Wars o the Three Kinricks wis pairt o a wider conflict kent as the Wars o the Three Kinricks, which includit the Bishops Wars, the Inglis Ceevil War an Irish Confederate Wars. The war wis focht atween Scots Royalists — supporters o Charles Stuart I, unner James Graham, 1st Marquess o Montrose, an the Covenanters, who haed controlled Scotland synce 1639 an alleed thairsels wi the Inglis Parliament. The Scots Ryalists, who were allied to the English Ryalists and were aided by Irish troops, had a rapid series of victories in 1644–45, but were eventually defeated by the Covenanters.[2]

However, the Scottish Covenanters themselves then found themselves at odds with the English Parliament and backed the claims of Charles Stuart II to the thrones of England and Scotland. This led to the Third English Civil War, when Scotland was invaded and occupied by the Parliamentarian New Model Army under Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell was later defeated in Scotland.[2]

Sir James Stuart of Bute was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia by Charles I in 1627. Early in the civil war he garrisoned Rothesay Castle, and at his own expense raised soldiers for the king. He was appointed royal lieutenant for the west of Scotland, and directed to take possession of Dumbarton Castle. Two frigates sent to assist him fell foul of stormy weather, and one was completely wrecked. Ultimately, Sir James was forced to flee to Ireland when the forces of Cromwell were victorious. His estates were sequestrated, and he was forced to pay a substantial fine to redeem them. His grandson, Sir James Stuart of Bute, was appointed to manage the estates and to be colonel of the local militia on the forfeiture of the Earl of Argyll in 1681.[2]

Restoration o the Stewart Monarchy[eedit | eedit soorce]

After the death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, the factions and divisions which had struggled for supremacy during the early years of the interregnum reemerged. George Monck, who had served Cromwell and the English Parliament throughout the civil wars, judged that his best interests and those of his country lay in the Restoration of Charles II. In 1660, he marched his troops south from Scotland to ensure the monarchy's reinstatement. Scotland's Parliament and legislative autonomy were restored under the Restoration, though many issues that had led to the wars; religion, Scotland's form of government and the status of the Highlands, remained unresolved. After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, many more Scots would die on both sides, over the same disputes in Jacobite rebellions.[2]

18t century an Jacobite risins[eedit | eedit soorce]

A Victorian era, romanticised depiction o a memmer o the clan bi R. R. McIan, frae The Clans of the Scottish Highlands, published in 1845.

In 1703 Sir James Stewart o Bute wis creatitd Earl o Bute, Viscoont Kingarth an Laird Mount Stuart, Cumra an Inchmarnock. But bi 1706, the earl wis convincit a union wi Ingland wad be a disaster for his kintra, an he opposed it vehemently. When he realised that Parliament wad vote in favour of the alliance, he athdrew frae politics entirely. He marriet the eldest dochter o Sir George Mackenzie o Rosehaugh, the celebratit Laird Advocate an heraldic writer. Efter the succession o George I, the Earl o Bute wis appointit Commissioner for Trade an Polis in Scotland, Laird Lieutenant o Bute an a laird o the bedchamber.[2]

Queen Anne o Great Breetain dee'd in 1714, the last monarch frae the Hoose o Stuart. Anne wis succeedit bi her awn cousin Keeng George I o Great Breetain o the Hoose o Hanover.[2]

The Jacobite Uprisins o the 18t century wur led bi Charles Edward Stuart who wis the exiled claimant tae the thrones o Ingland, Scotland, an Ireland, commonly kent as "Bonnie Prince Charlie". Charles wis the son o James Francis Edward Stuart kent as the Auld Pretender an aw. James Francis Edward Stuart was in turn the son o Keeng James II o Ingland an Ireland, who haed been deposed in 1688. Efter his faither's daith Charles wis recognisit as "Keeng Charles III" bi his supporters but his opponents referred tae him as "The Young Pretender".[2]

This resultit in the Jacobite Risins which first began in the late 17t century but did no gain momentum till the 18th century. The Clan Stewart focht at the Battle o Killiecrankie in 1689. Their prowess in battle is celebratit bi the fact that the present Duke o Atholl maintains the Atholl Heichlanders as the anerlie private airmy in the Unitit Kinrick. Although mony Stewarts an Stuarts focht for the Jacobites, mony remained peaceful an aw.[2]

The 'Fifteen'[eedit | eedit soorce]

During the rising of 1715 Sir James Stuart of Bute commanded the Bute and Argyll militia at Inveraray, and through his vigilance kept that part of the country peaceful. His second son, having inherited his mother’s estates of Rosehaugh, took the surname Mackenzie. He became a Member of Parliament and later envoy to Sardinia, Keeper of the Privy Seal and Privy Councillor.[2]

The first major Jacobite Uprising became known as 'The Fifteen'. See main article: The 'Fifteen'. This resulted in the Battle of Preston (1715), the Battle of Sheriffmuir and the Battle of Glen Shiel in 1719.

The 'Fowerty-Five'[eedit | eedit soorce]

The next major Jacobite uprising during the 18th century was known as the 'Forty Five'. See Main article: The 'Forty-Five'. During this rising the Jacobites led by the Stuarts gained much success and support, winning many victories including the Battle of Prestonpans and the Battle of Falkirk (1746). However their success ended at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, the last major battle on mainland Britain, where the Jacobites were defeated and the British government remained with the House of Hanover.[2]

Charles Stewart of Ardsheal led the men of Clan Stewart of Appin during the rising of 1745, and many fell at the grim field of Culloden, having first gained glory by breaking the Redcoat ranks. Colin Roy Campbell o Glenure, ‘the Red Fox’, was placed as government factor on the forfeited Stewart estates. His murder in 1752 has been immortalised by Robert Louis Stevenson in the novel, Kidnapped. After the chief suspect, Alan Breck Stewart, made his escape, James Stewart, the half-brother of the chief, was tried by a jury composed entirely of Campbells at Inverary presided over by Argyll himself, and, perhaps not surprisingly, was convicted and hanged. See main airticle: Appin Murther.[2]

Tartan[eedit | eedit soorce]

ye principal clovris of ye clanne Stewart tartan, as published in 1842 in the dubious Vestiarium Scoticum.

The Ryal Stewart tartan is worn bi the regimental pipers o the Scots Guards an wis referred tae bi Keeng George V o the Unitit Kinrick as "ma personal tartan". Kent as the "Ryal Tartan", it is still traditionally the offeecial tartan o the Ryal Hoose o Scotland. Stewart setts or patterns include 'Hunting Stewart','Stewart of Appin' an 'Stewart of Atholl' an aw as well as 'Stewart of Ardshiel','Stewart of Galloway' an numerous 'dress setts' an an auncient pattern which supposedly predates the 'Tartan revival' o the early 1820s. It is the offeecial tartan o The Ryal Scots Regiment an Queen Victoria Schuil in Dunblane, Scotland an aw.

Castles[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]