Clan Stewart

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Clan Stewart
Stiùbhard
Clan member crest badge - Clan Stewart.svg
Crest: A pelican Argent, winged Or, in her nest feedin her young, Proper.
Motto Virescit vulnere virtus
Profile
Region Hielands
Destrict Galloway
Plant badge Thistle
Clan Stewart has no chief, and is an armigerous clan

Clan Stewart (Gaelic: Stiùbhard) is a Hieland Scots clan. The clan is recognisit bi Court of the Lord Lyon, housomeivver it daes no hae a clan chief recognised bi the Lord Lyon. Acause the clan haes nae chief it can be considered an airmigerous clan; housomeivver the Yerls o Gallowa are nou considered tae be the principal branch o this Clan, an the crest an motto o The Yerls o Gallowa's airms ar uised in the Clan Stewart crest badge. The Court o the Lord Lyon recognises twa ither 'Stewart' clans, Clan Stuart o Bute an Clan Stewart o Appin. Clan Stuart o Bute is the anerlie 'Stewart' clan at present which haes a recognised chief.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Oreegins o the clan[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Stewart faimily records its traditional strynd frae Banquo, Thane o Lochaber, who maks an appearance as a character in William Shakespeare's Macbeth. Historically, housomeivver, the faimily appears tae be descendit frae a mediaeval faimily who wur seneschals o Dol in Breetany, the earliest recordit bein Flaald.[1][2]

Thay acquired launds in Ingland efter the Norman conquest, an muivit tae Scotland wi mony ither Anglo-Norman faimilies when David I ascendit tae the throne o Scotland. The faimily wis grantit extensive estates in Renfrewshire an in East Lowden an the office of Heich Stewart o Scotland wis made hereditary in the faimily.[2]

Walter, the son of Alan or Fitz-alan wis the founder of the royal faimily of Stewarts. He wis the first of the faimily tae establish himself in Scotland. Walter's elder brither cried William wis the progenitor of the faimily of Fitzalan who war the Earls of Arundel. Thair faither who wis a Norman mairit suin efter the Norman Conquest. He mairit the daughter of Warine, sheriff of Shropshire. He acquired the manor of Ostvestrie or Oswestry on the Welsh border. On the daith of King Henry I o Ingland in 1135 Walter an William supported the claims of Empress Maud an in daein sae raised themselves heich in the favour of her uncle King David I of Scotland.[2]

In 1141 Walter accompanied King David I tae retire in Scotland on promises made tae him bi the Scottish monarch which war faithfully fulfilled. His brither William houiver remained in England an wis rewairdit bi Empress Maud's son, Keeng Henry II o Ingland.[2]

In Scotland Walter obtained frae Keeng David I o Scotland lairge grants o laund an property in Renfrewshire as well as in mony ither places, thegither wi the hereditary office of Senescallus Scotiae, Heich Stewart o Scotland. Frae this title Walter's grandson, cried Walter an aw, teuk the name Stewart, which wis forever efterwairds retained bi the faimily. This Walter wis rewairdit launds bi Keeng Malcolm IV o Scotland an aw. Walter is celebratit as the foonder o Paisley Monastery in 1163 in the barony o Renfrew. Walter marriet Eschina de Londonia, Lady o Moll, in Roxburghshire. Walter dee'd in 1177, he wis succeedit bi his son Alan Stewart.[2]

Alan dee'd in 1204 leavin a son cried Walter who wis appointit bi Keeng Alexander II o Scotland as justiciary o Scotland in addition tae the hereditary office o heich stewart. This Walter dee'd in 1246 leavin fower sons an three dochters. The third son cried Walter wis Yerl o Menteith jure uxoris. The eldest son, cried Alexander marriet Jean, the dochter an heiress of James Lord of Bute. In her richt thair son James Stewart seizit baith the Isle o Bute an Isle o Arran.[2]

Wars o Scots Unthirldom[eedit | eedit soorce]

Alexander Stewart, 4t Heich Stewart o Scotland haed twa sons, James an John. The elder, James wad succeed Alexander as chief o the clan. Durin the Wars o Scots Unthirldom the Clan Stewart gae hintle support tae Keeng Robert the Bruce. Alexander's seicont son, kent as Sir John Stewart o Bonkyll, wis killed at the Battle o Falkirk (1298), fechtin in support o William Wallace.[2]

Alexander's seicont son, John, who wis killed at the Battle o Fawkirk in 1298 haed seiven sons. The eldest wis Sir Alexander who wis the ancestor tae the Stewarts who wur Earls o Angus. The seicont son wis Sir Alan Stewart o Dreghorn whose faimily became the Earls an Dukes o Lennox. The third son wis Walter whose faimily wur the Yerls o Gallowa. The fowert son wis Sir James whose faimily wure the Earls o Atholl, Yerl o Buchan an Yerl o Traquair. The fift son Sir John Stewart wis killed at the Battle o Halidon Hill in 1333. The saxt son Sir Hugh Stewart focht in Ireland unner Edward Bruce, the younger brither o Keeng Robert the Bruce. The seivent son wis Sir Robert Stewart o Daldowie (NO the Lanarkshire Daldowie).[2]

James Stewart, the eldest son o Alexander Stewart, succeeded as the fift heich stewart in 1283. On the daith o Keeng Alexander III o Scotland in 1286, James Stewart wis ane o sax magnates o Scotland chosen tae act as regents o the kinrick. James dee'd in the service o Robert the Bruce in 1309. James's son Walter became the saxt heich stewart. This Walter Stewart at the age o juist twinty-ane years commandit the left wing o the Scots airmy, alang wi Sir James Douglas at the Battle o Bannockburn in 1314. Robert the Bruce an his wife Isabella's anerlie bairn, Marjorie Bruce, marriet Walter Stewart, 6t Heich Stewart o Scotland (1293–1326), an frae him the Ryal Hoose o Stewart are descendit.[2]

Ryal Hoose[eedit | eedit soorce]

Walter Stewart's son cried Robert the seivent laird-heich stewart haed been declared heir tae the throne o Scotland in 1318. Housomeivver the birth o a son tae Robert the Bruce in 1326 interruptit Robert Stewart's prospects for a time. Robert Stewart receivit frae his grandfather lairge amoonts o laund in Kintyre. During the lang an disastrous reign o Keeng David II o Scotland, Robert Stewart actit a patriotic pairt in the defence o the kinrick. On the daith o Keeng David II athout issue on 22 Februar 1371 Robert Stewart, at the age o fifty five, succeedit tae the croun o Scotland as Keeng Robert II o Scotland. He wis the first o the Stewart faimily tae ascend tae the throne o Scotland.[2]

The royal line of male Stewarts continued uninterrupted until the reign of Mary I, Queen o Scots. Mary's son James VI an descendents, monarchs of Great Britain an Ireland frae 1603 tae 1714, continued tae uise the surname Stuart as thay war descended frae Mary's seicont husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley a member of the clan Stewart of Darnley. It wis aroond this time that the seicont an interchangeable spelling of the name Stuart became common allegedly throu the French influence of Mary's upbringing. Members of this Stewart line war later foond in Kintyre, Argyll frae the early 1600's. Livin members of this faimily (discovered efter yDNA matching, approved bi the Stewart Society in Edinburgh) can be foond in the United Kinrick, Canadae an the United States.[2][3] The Stuarts held the throne of Scotland an efter the Union of the Crowns in 1603 thay held the throne o Ingland too. This wis held until the daith of Queen Anne o Great Breetain in 1714, the last monarch frae the Hoose o Stuart. Anne wis succeeded bi her cousin, King George I of Great Britain of the House of Hanover. The present Royal Faimily still haes Stuart bluid links.[2]

Sauchieburn an Prince James Stewart[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Battle o Sauchieburn wis focht on 11 Juin 1488, at the side of Sauchie Burn, a brook aboot twa miles (3 km) sooth o Stirlin, Scotland. The battle wis focht atween as mony as 30,000 troops o Keeng James III an some 18,000 troops raised bi Scottis nobles who favoured the Keeng's then-15-year-auld son, Prince James. Prince James ascendit tae the throne, an reigned as James IV for twinty-five years.[2]

In 1489 John Stewart, 1st Yerl o Lennox rebelled against King James IV. James respondit bi bringin the cannon Mons Meg frae Edinburgh, an bombardin Crookston Castle seat o the Yerl o Lennox, virtually destroyin its wastren end, an ensurin a quick surrender.[2]

16t century[eedit | eedit soorce]

Clan Stewart tartan, as published in 1842 in the dubious Vestiarium Scoticum.

During the 16t century the Anglo-Scottish Wars teuk place unner the reign of the Stewarts. England an Scotland haed focht during the fowerteent an fifteenth centuries includin the Wars of Scottish Independence at the beginnin of the 14t century. In maist cases, ane kintra haed attempted tae tak advantage of weakness or instability in the ither. For example, King James II of Scotland haed attempted tae regain Berwick during the Wars of the Roses in England. Battles wi England frae this time included: the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513, the Battle of Solway Moss in 1542, the Battle of Ancrum Moor in 1545 an the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547.[2]

Patrick Rattray, chief o Clan Rattray wis intimidated intae giein up the Barony bi John Stewart, who wis then the Yerl o Atholl. Throu the mairiage o Patrick’s niece intae the faimily, the Yerl teuk control o the Barony o Rattray an an aa teuk control o her sister. Thus Patrick wis driven frae his estate in 1516. He began the construction of Craighall a grand building perched on a 200 feet (61 m) rock abuin the River Ericht. The stronghold of Craighall coud nae pertect him frae John Stewart the Yerl o Atholl tho an he wis murdered in 1533.

Sir John’s son Patrick defended Castle Rattray against the Stewarts of Atholl but wis forced tae burn the Castle an escape in the confusion. The Rattrays then withdrew tae Kynballoch, whaur Patrick wis later murdered bi the 3rd Yerl o Atholl’s men whilst claiming sanctuary in his ain Chapel.[2]

An aa in the 16t century an internal Scottish Civil War teuk place atween the Royal House of Stuarts an Mary I, Queen o Scots. The Battle o Langside, focht on Mey 13, 1568, wis ane of the mair unusual contests in Scottish history, bearing a superficial resemblance tae a grand faimily quarrel, in which a mither focht her brither who wis defendin the rights of her infant son. In 1567 Mary Queen of Scots' short period of personal rule ended in recrimination, intrigue an disaster when she wis forced tae abdicate in favour of James VI, her infant son. Mary wis sent intae captivity in Loch Leven Castle, while her Protestant hauf-brither, James Stewart, 1st Yerl o Moray wis appyntit Regent on behalf of his nephew. In early Mey 1568 Mary escaped, heidin wast tae the kintra of the Clan Hamilton, heich amang her remainin supporters, wi the determination tae restore her rights as queen.[2]

Sir John Rattray's third son Silvester succeeded his murdered brither, Stewart of Atholl continued tae intimidate the faimily houiver an Silvester petitioned the king for legal recognition as heir. He wis succeeded bi his son, David Rattray of Craighall. George The laird’s eldest son wis murthered in 1592 an aw.

In 1600 Archibald MacAlister, chief o Clan MacAlister alang wi Angus Og MacDonald, a MacDonald chief carriet oot an attack on the indwallers o the Isle o Bute against the Clan Stuart. A year later an Archibald MacAlister an Angus Og MacDonald wur accused o bein rebels, chairgit wi treason against the ryal hoose an hanged in Edinburgh Tollbooth.[2]

Clan Stewart wur bitter enemies wi the infamous Yerls o Angus, kent as the Red Douglases o Clan Douglas.[2]

17t century an the Ceevil War[eedit | eedit soorce]

undiffered arms of stewart
Stewart o Stewart
Arms of Stuart of Albany
Stuart o Albany
Arms of Stuart of Buchan
Stuart o Buchan
Arms of Stewart of Barclye
Stewart o Barclye
Arms of Stewart of Garlies
Stewart o Garlies
Arms of Stewart of Minto
Stewart o Minto
Arms of Stewart of Atholl
Stewart o Atholl
Arms of Stewart of Bute
Stewart o Bute
Arms of Stuart of Bute
Stuart o Bute
Arms of Stewart of Ardvorlich
Stewart o Ardvorlich
Arms of Stewart of Physgill
Stewart o Physgill
Arms of Stewart of Rothesay
Stewart o Rothesay

Scotland in the Wars o the Three Kinricks wis pairt o a wider conflict kent as the Wars o the Three Kinricks, which includit the Bishops Wars, the Inglis Ceevil War an Irish Confederate Wars. The war wis focht atween Scots Royalists — supporters o Charles Stuart I, unner James Graham, 1st Marquess o Montrose, an the Covenanters, who haed controlled Scotland synce 1639 an alleed thairsels wi the Inglis Parliament. The Scots Ryalists, who war allied tae the Inglis Ryalists an war aided bi Irish troops, haed a rapid series of victories in 1644–45, but war eventually defeatit bi the Covenanters.[2]

Houiver, the Scottish Covenanters themselves then foond themselves at odds wi the Inglis Parliament an backed the claims of Charles Stuart II tae the thrones o Ingland an Scotland. This led tae the Third Inglis Civil War, when Scotland wis invaded an occupied bi the Parliamentarian New Model Army unner Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell wis later defeatit in Scotland.[2]

Sir James Stuart of Bute wis creautit a Baronet of Nova Scotia bi Charles I in 1627. Early in the civil war he garrisoned Rothesay Castle, an at his ain expense raised soldiers for the king. He wis appyntit royal lieutenant for the wast of Scotland, an directed tae tak possession of Dumbarton Castle. Twa frigates sent tae assist him fell foul of stormy wather, an ane wis completely wrecked. Ultimately, Sir James wis forced tae flee tae Ireland when the forces of Cromwell war victorious. His estates war sequestrated, an he wis forced tae pay a substantial fine tae redeem them. His grandson, Sir James Stuart of Bute, wis appyntit tae manage the estates an tae be colonel of the local militia on the forfeiture of the Yerl o Argyll in 1681.[2]

Restoration o the Stewart Monarchy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Efter the daith of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, the factions an divisions which haed struggled for supremacy during the early years of the interregnum reemerged. George Monck, who haed served Cromwell an the Inglis Parliament throughout the civil wars, judged that his best interests an those of his kintra lay in the Restoration of Charles II. In 1660, he marched his troops sooth frae Scotland tae ensure the monarchy's reinstatement. Scotland's Parliament an legislative autonomy war restored unner the Restoration, tho mony issues that haed led tae the wars; religion, Scotland's form of govrenment an the status of the Highlands, remained unresolved. Efter the Glorious Revolution of 1688, mony mair Scots wad die on baith sides, ower the same disputes in Jacobite rebellions.[2]

18t century an Jacobite risins[eedit | eedit soorce]

A Victorian era, romanticised depiction o a memmer o the clan bi R. R. McIan, frae The Clans of the Scottish Highlands, published in 1845.

In 1703 Sir James Stewart o Bute wis creatitd Yerl o Bute, Viscoont Kingarth an Laird Moont Stuart, Cumra an Inchmarnock. But bi 1706, the earl wis convincit a union wi Ingland wad be a disaster for his kintra, an he opposed it vehemently. When he realised that Parliament wad vote in favour of the alliance, he athdrew frae politics entirely. He marriet the eldest dochter o Sir George Mackenzie o Rosehaugh, the celebratit Laird Advocate an heraldic writer. Efter the succession o George I, the Yerl o Bute wis appointit Commissioner for Trade an Polis in Scotland, Laird Lieutenant o Bute an a laird o the bedchamber.[2]

Queen Anne o Great Breetain dee'd in 1714, the last monarch frae the Hoose o Stuart. Anne wis succeedit bi her awn cousin Keeng George I o Great Breetain o the Hoose o Hanover.[2]

The Jacobite Uprisins o the 18t century wur led bi Charles Edward Stuart who wis the exiled claimant tae the thrones o Ingland, Scotland, an Ireland, commonly kent as "Bonnie Prince Charlie". Charles wis the son o James Francis Edward Stuart kent as the Auld Pretender an aw. James Francis Edward Stuart wis in turn the son o Keeng James II o Ingland an Ireland, who haed been deposed in 1688. Efter his faither's daith Charles wis recognisit as "Keeng Charles III" bi his supporters but his opponents referred tae him as "The Young Pretender".[2]

This resultit in the Jacobite Risins which first began in the late 17t century but did no gain momentum till the 18t century. The Clan Stewart focht at the Battle o Killiecrankie in 1689. Thair prowess in battle is celebratit bi the fact that the present Duke o Atholl maintains the Atholl Heichlanders as the anerlie private airmy in the Unitit Kinrick. Awtho mony Stewarts an Stuarts focht for the Jacobites, mony remained peaceful an aw.[2]

The 'Fifteen'[eedit | eedit soorce]

During the rising of 1715 Sir James Stuart of Bute commanded the Bute an Argyll militia at Inveraray, an throu his vigilance kept that pairt of the kintra peaceful. His seicont son, haein inherited his mither’s estates of Rosehaugh, teuk the surname Mackenzie. He became a Member of Parliament an later envoy tae Sardinia, Keeper of the Privy Seal an Privy Councillor.[2]

The first major Jacobite Uprising became kent as 'The Fifteen'. See main article: The 'Fifteen'. This resulted in the Battle of Preston (1715), the Battle of Sheriffmuir an the Battle of Glen Shiel in 1719.

The 'Fowerty-Five'[eedit | eedit soorce]

The next major Jacobite uprising during the 18t century wis kent as the 'Forty Five'. See Main article: The 'Forty-Five'. During this rising the Jacobites led bi the Stuarts gained much success an support, winnin mony victories includin the Battle of Prestonpans an the Battle of Falkirk (1746). Houiver thair success ended at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, the last major battle on mainland Britain, whaur the Jacobites war defeatit an the Breetish govrenment remained wi the House of Hanover.[2]

Charles Stewart of Ardsheal led the men of Clan Stewart of Appin during the rising of 1745, an mony fell at the grim field of Culloden, haein first gained glory bi breaking the Redcoat ranks. Colin Roy Campbell o Glenure, ‘the Red Fox’, wis placed as govrenment factor on the forfeited Stewart estates. His murder in 1752 haes been immortalised bi Robert Louis Stevenson in the novel, Kidnapped. Efter the chief suspect, Alan Breck Stewart, made his escape, James Stewart, the hauf-brither of the chief, wis tried bi a jury componed entirely of Campbells at Inverary presided ower bi Argyll himself, an, perhaps nae surprisingly, wis convicted an hanged. See main airticle: Appin Murther.[2]

Tartan[eedit | eedit soorce]

ye principal clovris of ye clanne Stewart tartan, as published in 1842 in the dubious Vestiarium Scoticum.

The Ryal Stewart tartan is worn bi the regimental pipers o the Scots Guards an wis referred tae bi Keeng George V o the Unitit Kinrick as "ma personal tartan". Kent as the "Ryal Tartan", it is still tradeetionally the offeecial tartan o the Ryal Hoose o Scotland. Stewart setts or patterns include 'Huntin Stewart','Stewart of Appin' an 'Stewart of Atholl' an aw as well as 'Stewart of Ardshiel','Stewart of Galloway' an numerous 'dress setts' an an auncient pattern which supposedly predates the 'Tartan revival' o the early 1820s. It is the offeecial tartan o The Ryal Scots Regiment an Queen Victoria Schuil in Dunblane, Scotland an aw.

Castles[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]