Jump to content

William Wallace

Frae Wikipedia, the free beuk o knawledge


William Wallace
Depiction o Wallace in a stained gless windae in the Wallace Monument
Guardian of the Kingdom of Scotland
(Second Interregnum)
In office
Precedit biJohn Balliol (as King of the Scots)
Succeedit bi
Personal details
Bornc. 1270
Elderslie, Renfrewshire, Kinrick o Scotland
Dee'd23 August 1305 (aged c. 35)
Smithfield, Lunnon, Kinrick o Ingland
Cause o daithHanged, drawn an quartert
Restin placeLunnon, in an unmerked grave
Spoose(s)Marion Braidfute[1] (disputed)
BairnsNone recorded
ThriftMilitary leader
Militar service
Allegiance Kinrick o Scotland
Years o service1297–1305

Sir William Wallace (Scots Gaelic: Uilleam Uallas, pronounced [ˈɯʎam ˈuəl̪ˠəs̪]; Norman French: William le Waleys;[2] c. 1270[3] – 23 August 1305) wis the leader o the Scots airmy agin the Inglis fur the first pairt o the Scots Weirs for Unthirldom an wis the Gairdian o Scotland frae 1297 til 1298.[4] Wallace wis born in Elderslie, Renfrewshire an wis eddicate at some time in his airly years at the Heich Schuil o Dundee.[5] Some soorces propones his faither wis cawed Malcolm an ithers at his faither's name wis Alan. Wallace is thocht tae hae haed twa brithers whas names wis John an Malcom.[6][7]

Alang wi Andrew Moray, Wallace defeatit an Inglis airmy at the Battle o Stirlin Brig in September 1297. He was appointed Guardian of Scotland and served until his defeat at the Battle o Fawkirk in July 1298. In August 1305, Wallace was captured in Robroyston, near Glasgow, and handed over to King Edward I o Ingland, who had him hanged, drawn and quartered for high treason and crimes against English civilians.[8] He wis begowkit syne execute by the Inglis laird King Edward I. Sir William Wallace wis kilt by raxin, drawin, an quarterin.[9]

Efter his deeth, Wallace haes been gien a legendary status faur ayont his hameland. He is the protagonist o Blind Harry's 15th-yearhunner epic poem The Wallace an the subject o literary wirks bi Jane Porter an Sir Walter Scott, an fae the Academy Award-winning film Braveheart.

Backgrund[eedit | eedit soorce]

Personal seal of Sir William Wallace, found on a letter written on 11 October 1297, to the mayor of Lübeck, Germany

William Wallace wis a memmer o the lesser nobility, but no a lot is defo kent aboot his history, his faimlie or even his parentage. William's ain seal, fund on a letter sent tae the Hanse city of Lübeck in 1297,[10] gies his faither's name as Alan Wallace.[11][12] This Alan Wallace micht be the same yin listit in the 1296 Ragman Rolls as a crown tenant in Ayrshire, but thare isnae ony extrae confirmation.[13] Ithers have thocht this Alan haudit an Ellerslie, near Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, an gin this is true, the estate coud be a possible birthplace for William; tho thare isnae a record o Wallaces' haudin the estate, in the mid 13t yearhunner. Blind Harry's late-15th-yearhunner poem offers an alternate father for William, a Sir Malcolm o Elderslie, in Renfrewshire; an haes itsel gien rise tae a possible birthplace for William an aw.[14][15] Thare isnae contemporary evidence linkin him tae aither airt, awtho baith areas haed connections wi the wider Wallace faimile.[16] Records shaw early memmers o the family as haudin estates at Riccarton, Tarbolton, Auchincruive in Kyle and Stenton in East Lothian.[17] Thay war vassals o James Stewart, 5th High Steward o Scotland as their lands fell ben his territory. It haes been claimed that Wallace's brothers Malcolm an John are kent fae ither soorces, but thare isnae ony verifiable evidence for John’s relationship wi William.[18]

The origins o the Wallace surname an its association wi the soothwast o Scotland are far frae certain an aw, ither nor the name bein taen frae the Auld Inglis wylisc (pronoonced "wullish"), meanin "foreigner" or "Welshman".[19] It is possible thit aw the Wallaces in the Clyde area war medieval immigrants fraw Wales, but as the term wis uised for the Cumbric-tawkin Strathclyde kingdom o the Celtic Britons an aw, it seems juist as likely thit the surname refers tae fowk thit war seen as "Welsh" due tae thair Cumbric leid.[20][21] A faimlie tradeetion states Wallace wis descendit frae the sister o Saint Patrick, thit wad reinforce the Welsh origin theory.[22]

William Wallace statue, Aiberdeen.
Wallace Moniment naur Stirlin.

See an aa[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Info" (in Inglis). wallace.scran.ac.uk. Archived frae the original on 16 Mey 2021. Retrieved 12 Juin 2021.
  2. Stevenson, Joseph (1841). Documents illustrative of Sir William Wallace: his life and times (in Inglis). Printed for the Maitland club. p. 173. Retrieved 1 September 2013 – via New York Public Library and Internet Archive.
  3. "Sir William Wallace, Scottish hero". Britannica.com. Retrieved 18 Apryle 2015.(in Inglis)
  4. "BBC - History - William Wallace". www.bbc.co.uk (in Inglis). Retrieved 21 Mairch 2022.
  5. "FDCA - William Wallace and Dundee". www.fdca.org.uk. Archived frae the original on 18 Januar 2022. Retrieved 21 Mairch 2022.
  6. The Wallace book (in Inglis). Edward J. Cowan. Edinburgh: John Donald. 2007. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-85976-652-4. OCLC 71165699.CS1 maint: others (link)
  7. The Wallace book (in Inglis). Edward J. Cowan. Edinburgh: John Donald. 2007. pp. 91–2. ISBN 978-0-85976-652-4. OCLC 71165699.CS1 maint: others (link)
  8. "William Wallace | Biography, Braveheart, Death, Sword, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com (in Inglis). Retrieved 21 Mairch 2022.
  9. Traquair, Peter (1998). Freedom's sword. Niwot, Colo.: Roberts Rinehart Publishers. p. 124. ISBN 1-57098-247-3. OCLC 40072790.
  10. [1]Lübecker Nachrichten, 21. September 2010: The document is still kept in the cities archives[deid airtin]
  11. Duncan, "William, son of Alan Wallace" (in Inglis), pp. 47–50; Grant, "Bravehearts and Coronets", p. 91.
  12. The Scottish Wars of Independence: The Lübeck Letter at the National Archives of Scotland website (in Inglis)
  13. Watson, "Sir William Wallace", p. 27; Duncan, "William, son of Alan Wallace", pp. 51–53; Grant, "Bravehearts and Coronets", pp. 90–93.
  14. Traquair, Peter Freedom's Sword p. 62
  15. "Sir William Wallace Of Elderslie" (in Inglis). Thesocietyofwilliamwallace.com. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  16. Watson, "Sir William Wallace", p. 27; Grant, "Bravehearts and Coronets", pp. 90–91.
  17. Barrow, Kingdom of the Scots, pp. 324–325.
  18. Duncan, "William, son of Alan Wallace", p. 53; Grant, "Bravehearts and Coronets", pp. 91–92.
  19. McArthur, Tom (1992). The Oxford Companion to the English Language (in Inglis). Oxford University Press. p. 1105.
  20. Black, George Fraser (1943). The Surnames of Scotland: Their Origin, Meaning, and History (in Inglis). New York Public Library. p. 799.
  21. "The Old North or Yr Hen Ogledd". The Great Courses Daily (in Inglis). 14 Mey 2020. Archived frae the original on 4 December 2021. Retrieved 23 Mey 2020.
  22. "Kells Family History". www.familysearch.org (in Inglis). Retrieved 15 Mey 2023.