Robert II o Scotland

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Robert II
Robert II Stewart.jpg
Keeng o Scots
Ring 22 Februar 1371 – 19 Aprile 1390
Coronation 26 Mairch 1371
Predecessor David II
Successor Robert III
Earl o Strathearn
Teetle held 1357 – 1390
Born 2 Mairch 1316
Paisley Aibey, Renfrewshire
Dee'd 19 Aprile 1390(1390-04-19) (aged 74)
Dundonal Castle, Ayrshire
Buirial Scuin Aibey
Spouse Elizabeth Mure
Euphemia de Ross
Robert III, Keeng o Scots
Walter, Laird o Fife
Robert, Duke o Albany
Alexander, Yerl o Buchan
David, Earl o Caithness
Walter, Yerl o Atholl
Thomas, Beeshop o St. Andras
Hoose Hoose o Stewart
Faither Walter Stewart, 6t Heich Stewart o Scotland
Mither Marjorie Bruce
Releegion Roman Catholic

Robert II (2 Mairch 1316 – 19 Apryle 1390) reigned as Keeng o Scots frae 1371 tae his daith as the first monarch o the Hoose o Stewart. He wis the son o Walter Stewart, 6t Heich Stewart o Scotland an o Marjorie Bruce, dauchter o the Scots keeng Robert the Bruce bi his first wife Isabella o Mar.

Edward Bruce, younger brither o Robert the Bruce, wis named heir tae the throne but he dee'd withoot legitimate childer on 3 December 1318 in a battle near Dundalk in Ireland. Marjorie bi this time haed dee'd in a ridin accident – probably in 1317. Pairlament decreed her infant son, Robert Stewart, as heir presumptive, but this lapsed on 5 Mairch 1324 on the birth o a son, David, tae Keeng Robert an his seicont wife, Elizabeth de Burgh. Robert Stewart inheritit the teetle o Heich Stewart o Scotland on his faither's daith on 9 Apryle 1326, an a Pairlament held in Julie 1326 confirmed the young Stewart as heir shoud Prince David die withoot a successor. In 1329 Keeng Robert I dee'd an the sax-year-auld David succeedit tae the throne wi Sir Thomas Randolph, Yerl o Moray appyntit Gairdian o Scotland.

Edward Balliol, son o Keeng John Balliol, assistit bi the Inglis an Scots nobles disinheritit bi Robert I, invadit Scotland inflictin hivy defeats on the Bruce pairty on 11 August 1332 at Dupplin Moor an Halidon Hill on 19 Julie 1333. Robert focht at Halidon, whaur his uncle an umwhile guardian, Sir James Stewart, wis killed. Follaein this battle, Robert's launds in the wast war gien bi Balliol tae his supporter David Strathbogie, the teetular Yerl o Atholl. Robert teuk refuge in the fortress o Dumbairton Castle in the Clyde estuary tae jyn his uncle, Keeng David. In Mey 1334 David escaped tae Fraunce leavin Robert an John Randolph, 3rd Yerl o Moray as jynt Gairdians o the kinrick. Robert succeedit in regainin his launds but follaein Randolph's captur bi the Inglis in Julie 1335, his possessions war ance again targetit bi the forces o Balliol an Keeng Edward III o Ingland. This mey hae persuadit Robert tae submit tae Balliol an the Inglis keeng an mey expleen his remuival as Gairdian bu September 1335. The Gairdianship transferred tae Sir Andrew Murray o Boddle but follaein his daith in 1338 Robert wis re-appyntit an retained the office till Keeng David returned frae Fraunce in Juin 1341. Robert accompanied David intae battle at Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346 but he an Patrick Dunbar, Yerl o March escaped or fled the field an David wis taken preesoner. In October 1357, the keeng wis ransomed for 100,000 merks tae be paid in installments ower ten years.

Robert mairied Elizabeth Mure aroond 1348, legitimisin his fower sons an five dauchters. His subsequent mairiage tae Euphemia de Ross in 1355 produced twa sons an twa survivin dauchters an providit the basis o a futur dispute regairdin the line o succession. Robert jyned a rebellion against David in 1363 but submittit tae him follaein a threit tae his richt o succession. In 1364, David presentit a proponal tae Pairlament that wad cancel the remeenin ransom debt if it wis agreed that a Plantagenet heir wad inherit the Scots throne shoud he dee withoot issue. This wis rejectit an Robert succeedit tae the throne at the age o 55 follaein David's unexpectit daith in 1371. Ingland still controlled lairge sectors in the Lowdens an in the mairch kintra sae Keeng Robert alloued his soothren yerls tae engage in actions in the Inglis zones tae regain thair territories, hautit tred wi Ingland an renewed treaties wi Fraunce. Bi 1384, the Scots haed re-taken maist o the occupied launds, but follaein the commencement o Anglo-French peace talks, Robert wis reluctant tae commit Scotland tae aw-oot war an obtained Scotland's inclusion in the peace treaty. Robert's peace strategy wis a factor in the virtual coup in 1384 whan he lost control o the kintra, first tae his eldest son, John, Yerl o Carrick, efterwarts Keeng Robert III, an then frae 1388 tae John's younger brither, Robert, Yerl o Fife, efterwarts the first Duke o Albany. Robert II dee'd in Dundonal Castle in 1390 an wis buiried at Scuin Aibey.