|Clan Maxwell haes na chief, an is an armigerous clan|
|Historic seat||Caerlaverock Castle|
|Last Chief||William Maxwell of Carruchan|
Clan Maxwell is a Lawland Scots clan an a minor hoose o the ryal House o Stuart (throu the marriage o John Maxwell, 4t Lord Maxwell tae his wife Lady Agnes Stewart). The clan daes no currently hae a chief therefore it is considered an Armigerous clan. The name Maxwell is the name o a Scotts faimily, members o which hae held the titles as, member o the council o Regency (1536) o the Kinrick o Scotland Regent o Arran, Earl o Morton, Earl o Nithsdale, Lord Maxwell, an Lord Herries.
Table o contents
History[eedit | eedit soorce]
Oreegins o the Clan[eedit | eedit soorce]
The name is taken probably frae Maccuswell, or Maxwell, near Kelsae, Scotland, in the barony o Holydean. The name Maxwell oreeginates frae Maccus, a Norman lord an son o Undweyn, who gae his name tae Maccuswell, a puil o the river Tweed near Kelsae brig. A grandson o Maccus, John Maxwell, became chamberlain o Scotland afore dying in 1241, tae be succeeded bi his brither Aylmer. Frae Aylmer sprang mony branches o the faimily throughoot the sooth-wast o Scotland.
Spellin variants include Mackeswal, Makiswel, Makiswell, Makkiswell, Miskill, Maxwaile, Maxwale, Maxweel, Maxwell, Maxuel, Maxvall, Maxvile, an Mescall. Septs include Adair, Blackstock, Dinwiddie, Dinwoddie, Dinwoodie, Dunwoodie, Edgar, Egarr, Halldykes, Herries, Kirk, Kirkdale, Kirkhaugh, Kirkland, Kirko, Latimer, Latimore, Macetterick, Macettrick, Macgetrick, Macgettrich, Macgettrick, Macghittich, Machethrick, Macittrick, Mackethrick, Macketterick, Mackitterick, Mackittrick, Macsata, Macsetree, Maxey, Maxon, Maxton, Monreith, Moss, Nithdale, Paulk, Peacock, Poak, Pogue, Poke, Polk, Pollock, Pollok, Sturgeon, an Wardlaw.
Wars o Scots Unthirldom[eedit | eedit soorce]
Sir Herbert Maxwell wan great fame bi defendin his Caerlaverock Castle against Keeng Edward I o England in 1300. During the Wars o Scots Independence the Clan Maxwell supported Keeng Robert the Bruce an focht at his side at the Battle o Bannockburn in 1314, unner the clan chief o Eustace Maxwell. Herbert, the succeeding clan chief wis knightit bi Keeng James I o Scotland for his services tae the crown. Anither Sir Herbert Maxwell wis made a lord o the Scots parliament afore 1445.
16t-century Anglo-Scots wars an clan conflicts[eedit | eedit soorce]
His great-grandson John, 4t Lord Maxwell, wis killed at the Battle o Flodden Field fightin against the Inglis in 1513 during the Anglo-Scots Wars. The fift Lord Maxwell intrigued wi Keeng Henry VII o Ingland, awtho bi 1542 Keeng James V o Scotland haed appyntit him warden o the marches an an Extraordinary Lord o Session an maist importantly Regent o Arran the lairgest island in the Firth o Clyde. Maxwell wis captured bi the Inglis at the Battle o Solway Moss in the same year.
Robert's great-grandson John, 7t Lord Maxwell (1553-1593), wis the son o Robert, 6t Lord Maxwell (d. 1554), who wis son o the 5t Earl an his wife Beatrix, dochter o James Douglas, 3rd Earl o Morton. Efter the execution o the regent James Douglas, 4t Earl o Morton, in 1581 this earldom wis bestowed upon Maxwell, but in 1586 the attainder o the late earl wis reversed an he wis deprived o his new title. He haed helped in 1585 tae drive the ryal favorite James Stewart, Earl o Arran, frae pouer, an he made active preparations tae assist the invadin Spaniards in 1588.
Thare haed been a lang runnin feud atween Clan Maxwell an the Clan Johnstone. The feud came tae a heid on 7 December 1593 at the Battle o Dryfe Sands near Lockerbie. The Clan Maxwell airmy approached the Johnstone toun o Lockerbie. Johnston kept maist o his men hidden, juist sendin a handful o men oot on horseback tae taunt an provoke the Maxwells. The Johnstones attacked, takin the Maxwells bi surprise as thay wur attemptin tae ford the river Annan. The Clan Maxwell fared badly that day. In aw, it is said that up tae 700 Maxwells wur killed, but this mey be an exaggerated nummer. Mony wur woundit bi dounward swuird strokes kent as "Lockerbie Licks." An thair chief, Lord Maxwell, who wis ane o the maist pouerful fowk in soothren Scotland, wus slain in cauld bluid bi the Johnstones when he asked for mercy an offered tae surrender. Awtho Sir Johnstone escaped punishment frae the Keeng for his actions, he did no escape the unforgivin haund o the next Lord Maxwell, son o the chief who wis killed at Dryfe Sands. In 1608, Lord Maxwell shot Sir Johnstone in the back durin a meetin held “unner trust,” which rendered him an ootlaw. Lord Maxwell wis later captured an executit bi hangin.
The Maxwells wur an aa at feud wi the pouerful Clan Douglas ower the Earldom o Morton, which he regardit as his inheritance. Efter a life o exceptional an continuous lawlessness he escaped frae Scotland an in his absence wis sentenced tae daith for the murder o Lord Johnstone; haein returned tae his native kintra he wis seized an wis beheadit in Edinburgh.
17t Century & Ceevil War[eedit | eedit soorce]
In 1618 John's brither an heir Robert (d. 1646) wis restored tae the lordship o Maxwell, an in 1620 wis creatit Earl o Nithsdale, surrenderin at this time his claim tae the earldom o Morton. He an his son Robert, afterwards the 2nt earl, focht unner James Graham, 1st Marquess o Montrose for Keeng Charles I durin the Wars o the Three Kinricks. Robert dee'd athoot sons in October 1667, an his cousin John Maxwell, 7t Lord Herries (d. 1677), became third earl.
18t Century & Jacobite Uprisins[eedit | eedit soorce]
William, 5t Earl o Nithsdale (1676-1744), a grandson o the third earl, wis lik his ancestor a Roman Catholic an wis attached tae the cause o the exiled House o Stuart. In 1715 he jynt the Jacobites an wis taken preesoner at the Battle o Preston; he wis sentenced tae daith an impreesoned in the Touer o Lunnon. Housomeivver wi the assistance o his wife, he disguised himsel as a servin wumman. The couple fled tae Roum whaur the earl dee'd in 1744.
Castles[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Caerlaverock Castle wis the seat o the chief o Clan Maxwell.
- Threave Castle wis awned bi the Clan Maxwell atween 1526 an 1640.
- Maxwell Castle wis biggit in 1545 but destroyed bi the Inglis in 1570.
- Newark Castle, Port Glesga wis biggit bi the Clan Maxwell in the 15t century.
- Haggs Castle wis awned bi the Maxwells frae 1585 tae 1972.
- Pollok House, the seat o the Maxwell Baronets o Pollok, is nou o internaitional importance, as it hooses the warld-famous Burrell Collection in its grunds.