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Dumfries leukin east
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|Sovereign state||Unitit Kinrick|
Dumfries (/dʌmˈfɹiːs/ ( listen) dum-FREESS; aiblins fae Scots Gaelic: Dùn Phris) is a mercat toun an foregane ryal burgh within the Dumfries an Gallowa cooncil aurie o Scotland. It is locatit near the mooth o River Nith intil the Solway Firth. Dumfries is the tradeetional coonty toun o the historic coonty o Dumfriesshire. Dumfries is eik-name't Queen o the Sooth. The eik-name his gien an aw name til the toun's perfaisonal fitbaw team. Fowk fae Dumfries is kenned colloquial in the Scots leid as Doonhamers.
Toponymy[eedit | eedit soorce]
The're at least three theorys on the etymology o the name. Yin is that the name Dumfries oreeginates fae the Scots Gaelic name Dùn Phris that means "Fort o the rone". Anither is that it comes fae a Brittonic cognate o the ledged Gaelic derivation (Welsh Dyn Prys). Dumfries micht be the same place as Penprys that is mentiont in an awdl (a lang poem) bi Taliesin, an suggests that the first element micht hae been pen, "summit-heid" (Welsh pen). Accordin tae a third theory, the name is a corruption o twa Auld Inglis or Auld Norse wirds that mean "the freer's hill"; thaim that fauvour this idea ledge the formation o a releegious hoose near the heid o whit is noo the Friar's Vennel. If the name wis English or Norse, houiver, the expectit form wad hae the elements in reversed orientation. A Celtic derivation is tharefore preferred. Mairower, the Brittonic element drum, meanin "rig" an the Gaelic elements druim that means the same, an dronn, "a hump", hae aw been suggestit as an explanation o the first element. Thaer is baith ane Dùn an ane druim in the toun.
History[eedit | eedit soorce]
Early history[eedit | eedit soorce]
No positive history his been obteent o the era an the circumstances that the toun of Dumfries wis foondit in.
Some scrievers haud that Dumfries floorisht as a place o distinction durin the Roman Occupeetion o North Great Breetain. The Selgovae bade in Nidsdale at the time and micht hae biggit some military warks o a defensive naitur on or near the site o Dumfries; an it is mair nor likely that a castle o some kynd formt the nucleus o the toun. This is inferred fae the etymology o the name, that, accordin tae ae theory, is resolvable intae twa Gaelic terms, seegnifeein a castle or fort in the shaw or scrogs. Dumfries wis aince within the borders o the Kinrick o Northumbrie. The deestrict aroond Dumfries wis for several centurys rule't ower an deemt o muckle importance bi the invadin Romans. Mony traces o Roman presence in Dumfriesshire is tae be fund yet; cuinyies, wappens, orrals o urns, military yirdwarks, an roads bein amang the relicts left ahint bi thair lenthent bidin in this pairt o Scotland. The Caledonian breed in the sooth o Scotland wis investit wi the same richts bi an edict o Antoninus Pius. The Romanized natives received freedom (the burraes, cairns, an orrals o stane temples tae be seen in the deestrict yet tell o a time whan Druidism wis the prevailin releegion) as weel as civilization fae thair conquerors. Late in the fowert century CE, the Romans bad fareweel til the kintra.
Accordin til anither theory, the name is a corruption o twa wirds that mean "The Freer's Hill"; thaim that fauvour this idea ledge that Saunt Ringan, bi plantin a releegious hoose near the heid o whit is noo Friars Vennel, at the end o the fowert century, becam the the virtual foonder o the burgh; houiver Rangan, sae faur as is kenned, dinna oreeginate ony monastic estaiblishments onywhaur an wis semply a meesionar. In the list o Breetish touns gien bi auncient historian Nennius, the name Caer Peris, that some modren antiquarians suppose tae hae been transmutit, bi change o deealect, intae Dumfries.
Twal o Keeng Arthur's battles wis recordit bi Nennius in his Historia Brittonum. The Battle o Tribuit (the 10t battle) his been suggestit as havin been mebbe near Dumfries or near the mooth o the River Avon near Bo'ness.
Efter the Roman depairtur the aurie aroond Dumfries hid various forms o veesit bi Pechts, Anglo-Saxons, Scots, an Norsemen culminatin a decisive veectory for Giric (Gregory), Keeng o Scots at whit is noo Lochmaben ower the native Britons in 890.
Mediaeval speal[eedit | eedit soorce]
Whan, in 1069, Malcolm Canmore an William the Conqueror haudit a conference regairdin the claims o Edgar the Ætheling til the English Croun, thay met at Abernithi - a term that in the auld Breetish lied means a port at the mooth o the River Nith. It his been argied, the toun sicweys chairacterized maun hae been Dumfries; an tharefore it maun hae existit as a port in the Kinrick o Strathclyde, gin no in the Roman days. Houiver, again this arguement is that the toun is situatit aicht tae nine mile fae the sea, awtho the River Nith is tidal an navigable aw the wey intil the toun itsel.
Awtho at the time 1 mile upstream an on the conter baunk o the Nith fae Dumfries, Lincluden Aibey wis foondit circa 1160. The aibey ruins is on the site o the bailey o the verra early Lincluden Castle, as is thae yins o the later Lincluden Tower. This releegious hoose wis uised for various purposes, until its abandonment aroond 1700. Lincluden Aibey an its grunds is noo within the Dumfries urban conurbation boond. William the Lion grantit the chairter tae raise Dumfries til the rank o a ryal burgh in 1186. Dumfries wis verra much on the mairch durin its first 50 year as a burgh an it growed verra swith as a mercat toun an port.
Alexander III veesitit Dumfries in 1264 tae plan an expedeetion again the Isle o Man, afore Scots bit for 180 year subjectit til the croun o Norawa. Identified wi the conquest o Man, Dumfries skare't in the weel-bein o Scotland for the next 22 year until Alexander's accidental deith brang an Augustan era in the toun's history til a snippen end.
A ryal castle, that no langer exists, wis built in the 13t century on the site o the praisent Castledykes Park. In the latter pairt o that century William Wallace chase't a fleein force soothwart throu the Nith dale. The English fugies met the yetts o Dumfries Castle that remained closed firm in thair presence. Wi a menyie o the toun's fowk jynin Wallace an his follaein pursuers whan thay arrived, the fleein English met thair end at Cockpool on the Solway Coast. Efter restin at Caerlaverock Castle a few mile awa fae the bluidlattin, Wallace again passt throu Dumfries on the day efter as he retourt north tae Sanchar.
In the invasion o 1300, Edward I o England ludged a wheen o days in Juin wi the Minorite Freers o the Vennel, afore, at the heid o the than-mucklemaist invasion force tae attack Scotland, he asieged Caerlaverock Castle. Efter Caerlaverock yieldit hinderly, Edward passt throu Dumfries again as he crosst the Nith so as tae tak the invasion tae Gallowa. Wi the Scots nobility haein requeestit assistance fae the Haly See for thair cause, Edward on his retour tae Caerlaverock wis praisentit wi a missive directit tae him bi Pape Boniface VIII. Edward haudit coort in Dumfries that he greed grudgin til a parley. On 30 October, the parley soleecitit bi Boniface wis adheebitit bi Edward at Dumfries. Letters fae Edward, datit at Dumfris, wis sent tae his subordinates ootthrou Scotland, orderin thaim tae gie effect tae the treaty. The peace wis tae last until Whitsunday in the follaein year.
Afore becomin Keeng o Scots, Robert the Bruce slaw his rival the Red Comyn at Greyfriar's Kirk in the toun on 10 Februar 1306. His switherin aboot the fatality o his stobbin caused yin o his follaers, Roger de Kirkpatrick, tae mooth the famous "A mak siccar" an feenish the Red Comyn aff. Bruce wis excommunicatit subsequent as an upshot, less for the murther nor its location. Regairdless, for the Bruce the dice wis casten at the maument in Greyfriars an sae begoud his campaign bi force for the independence o Scotland. Swuirds wis drawn bi supporters o baith sides, the buirial grund o the Monastery becomin the theatre o battle. Bruce an his pairty than attackit Dumfries Castle. The English gairison surrendert an for the third time in the day Bruce wis victorious. He wis crount King o Scotland scrimp seiven week efter. Bruce later triumpht at the Battle o Bannockburn an led Scotland tae independence.
Aince Edward hid received wird o the revolution that hid startit in Dumfries, he again raised an airmy an invadit Scotland. Dumfries wis again subjectit til the control o Bruce's enemys. Sir Christopher Seton (Bruce's guid-brither) hid been capturt at Loch Doon an wis hurrit tae Dumfries tae be tried for traison in general an mair speceefic for bein praisent at the Red Comyn's killin. In 1306 an alang wi twa companions, Seton wis condammt an executit bi hangin an than heidin (decaptitation) at the site o whit is noo St Mary's Kirk.
In 1659 ten weemen wis accuised o sindry acts o witchcraft bi Dumfries Kirk Session awtho the Kirk Session meenits itsel records anely nine witches. The Justiciary Coort fand thaim guilty o the several airticles o witchcraft an on 13 Apryle atween 2 pm an 4 pm thay wis takken til the Whitesands, strangelt at stakes, an thair bouks burnt til ess.
18t century[eedit | eedit soorce]
Contra the funtain in Dumfries High Street, adjacent til the praisent Marks & Spencer, wis the Commercial an later the County Hotel. Awtho the latter wis demolisht in 1984-5, the oreeginal facade o the biggin wis reteenit an incorporatit intae new retail premises. The biggin noo hooses a Waterstanes beukshap. Room No. 6 o the hottle wis kenned as Bonnie Prince Charlie's Room an wis cairpetit appropriate in the Ryal Stewart tartan. The timmer panellin o Prince Charlie's Room wis lairgely reinstatit an pentit complete wi the ile-pentit laundskips bi Robert Norie (1720-1766) in the owermantels at baith ends o the room an can yet be seen up the stairs as a shawroom o the beukshap. The Young Pertender hid his heidquarters here durin a 3-day stey in Dumfries taewart the end o 1745. £2,000 wis demandit bi the Prince, thegither wi 1,000 brogues for his kilted Jacobite rebel airmy, that wis campin in a field no 100 yaird awa. A clatter that the Duke o Cumberland wis approachin made Bonnie Prince Charlie decide tae leave wi his airmy, wi anely £1,000 an 255 pair o shuin haein been haundit ower.
Robert Burns flittit tae Dumfriesshire in 1788 an tae Dumfries itsel in 1791, bidin there until his deith on 21 Julie 1796. The day's Greyfriar's Kirk leuks ower the location o a Burns statue that wis designt bi Amelia Paton Hill, sculptit in Carrara, Italy in 1892, an wis unveilt bi futur Prime meenister, Archibald Primrose, 5t Yerl o Rosebery on 6 Apryle 1882. The day it featurs on the 2007 series o £5 paper notes issue't bi the Bank of Scotland, alangside wi the Brig o Doon.
Efter wirkin wi Patrick Miller o Dalswintoun, inventor William Symington ettle't tae cairy a trial oot sae as tae shaw that an ingine wad wirk on a boat withoot the boat catchin fire. The trial teuk place hinderly on Dalswintoun Loch near Dumfries on 14 October 1788. The experiment demonstratit that a steam ingine wad wirk on a boat. Symington gaed on tae become the builder o the first practical steamboat.
20t century an ayont[eedit | eedit soorce]
The first ineetial hint that RAF Dumfries wis tae be built wis made in late 1938. The site chosen hid accomodatit licht aircraft syne aboot 1914. Wark oncam quickly, an on 17 Juin 1940, the 18 Maintenance Unit wis appent at Dumfries. The role o the steid durin the war encompasst trainin an aw. RAF Dumfries hid a maument o danger on 25 Mairch 1943, whan a German Dornier Do 217 aircraft shot the airfield baikon up, bit rattelt shortlins efterwart. The pilot, Oberleutnant Martin Piscke wis later buiried in Troqueer Cemetery in Dumfries toun, wi fu military honours. On the nicht o 3-4 August 1943 a Vickers Wellington bomber wi ingine problems divertit tae Dumfries bit rattelt 1.5 mile short of the runwey.
In Warld War II the feck o the Norse Airmy durin thair years o exile in Breetain conseestit o a brigade o in Dumfries. When the army High Command teuk ower, the war 70 officers and aboot 760 preevats in the camp. The camp wis estaiblisht in Juin 1940 an name't Norwegian Reception Camp, conseestin o some 500 men an weemen, mainly Norse that hid volunteert for war duty in Norawa durin the Nazi occupeetion in early 1940. Throu the simmer the nummer wis accresst tae aroond 1,500 unner the commaund o General Carl Gustav Fleischer. Within a wheen o miles o Dumfries is the veelages o Tynwald, Torthorwald, an Moosal, that aw wis sattle't bi Vikings.
Dumfries his experience't twa Boxin Day yirdquauks. This anes wis in 1979 (measurin 4.7 ML centred near Langtoon) an in 2006 (centred in the Dumfries destrict measuring 3.6 ML). Thare wisna ony sairious consequences in baith yins. The war an aw a yirdquauk on 16 Februar 1984 an anither yirdquauk on 7 Juin 2010.
Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]
Namely fowk[eedit | eedit soorce]
A nummer o weel-kenned fowk wis eddicatit at Dumfries Academy, amang thaim Henry Duncan, meenister and foonder o the warld's first commercial saufins baunk; Sir James Anderson, that caiptaint the SS Great Eastern on the trans-Atlantic cable layin vaiges in 1865 an 1866; J. M. Barrie, scriever o Peter Pan; John Law Hume, muisicker in the orchestra on the RMS Titanic; Jane Haining, missionar for the Kirk o Scotland in Hungary; Alexander Knox Helm, diplomat; John Laurie, actor (Private Fraser in Dad's Army); Christian Jane Fergusson, airtist; Sir Robin Philipson, airtist; John Hanson, sangster; Alex Graham, cairtoonist best kenned for the Fred Basset series; an Jock Wishart, that in 1998 set a new warld record for circumnavigatin the globe in a pouert veshel. Roger White, CEO of saft-drinks group A.G. Barr, is a local lad that gaed tae the Dumfries Academy. Follaein William A. F. Browne's 1838 appyntment as superintendant o the Crichton Hospital, his son, James Crichton-Browne, psychiatrist, neurologist, an medical psychologist, wis eddicatit at the Academy.
William Charles Wells, predecessor tae Charles Darwin on the theory o Naitural selection wis anither yin that wis eddicatit in Dumfries. Geologist Robert Harkness wis eddicatit in Dumfries an bade consequent in the toun. Sir Frank Williams o F1 motor-racin fame wis eddicatit at St Joseph's College, Dumfries as wis Charles Forte, Baron Forte, foonder o the leisur an hottles conglomerate Forte Group. St Joseph's wis foondit bi Brither Wilfrid, the foonder o Celtic F.C..
International chairt-tappin record producer Calvin Harris is fae Dumfries. Dumfries wis the hametoun of Harris until he left in 2008. Ray Wilson, lead sangster o Stiltskin an later Genesis wis born in Dumfries as wis the musickers Geoffrey Kelly, Ian Carr, an Emma's Imagination sangster Emma Gillespie is fae Dumfries. Opera sangster Nicky Spence wis born in Dumfries as wis Britain's Got Talent sangster Andrew Johnston. Nigel Sinclair CBE is a Hollywood pictur producer. Michael Carter's actin career his seen him appear in a variety o productions rangin fae Return o the Jedi tae Rebus.
Dumfries his produce't a steidy rin o perfaisonal fitbawers an manager. The best-kenned fitbawers o thair era tae come fae Dumfries is aiblins Dave Halliday, Ian Dickson, Bobby Ancell, Billy Houliston, Jimmy McIntosh, Willie McNaught, an Ted McMinn. Halliday, Dickson, Houliston, an McMinn played for the hame toun club Queen o the Sooth FC durin thair careers. Dominic Matteo wis born in Dumfries bit flittit tae England whan he wis a young boy. Barry Nicholson lost 4-3 tae Queens playin for Aberdeen F.C. in the 2008 Scots Cup semi-feenals in maugre o scorin again the team he supportit as a boy. Ancell, Houliston, McNaught, an Nicholson hae representit England at unner-21 level and wis jyned bi havin duin sae in saison 2010-11 bi Cammy Bell an Grant Hanley. Matteo gaint 6 fu kaips for Scotland efter haein representit England at unner-21 level. Halliday wis owerleukit bi Scotland in fauvour o Hughie Gallacher. Gallacher played for The Queens bit wisna fae Dumfries. It wis as a manager raither nor a player that Thomas Mitchell made his name as a multiple FA Cup winner at Blackburn Rovers F.C. afore jynin Woolwich Arsenal as Arsenal F.C. wis than name't.
Dumfries is an aw the hametoun o three-times 24 Oors o Le Mans winner Allan McNish as it wis tae David Leslie. Scotland rugby union internationalists Duncan Hodge, Nick De Luca, Craig Hamilton, an Alex Dunbar wis born in Dumfries as wis perfaisonal gowfers Andrew Coltart an Robert Dinwiddie. Curlin warld kemps David Murdoch, Euan Byers, an Craig Wilson wis aw born in Dumfries. Umwhile Dairts kemp Rab Smith is anither Doonhamer.
BBC braidcaster Kirsty Wark wis born in the toun as wis fallae braidcaster Stephen Jardine. Neil Oliver (archaeologist, historian, scriever, an braidcaster growed up in Ayr an Dumfries. Scriever an earth scientist Dougal Dixon is fae Dumfries. Hunter Davies (scriever, jurnalist, an braidcaster) bade in Dumfries for 4 year as a boy. James Hannay, asides bein a scriever an jurnalist spent the last 5 year o his life as the Breetish consul in Barcelona. John Mayne wis born in Dumfries in 1759 an contreebutit in the field o poetry. Warld War I makar William Hamilton wis anither wan born in Dumfries.
Archibald Gracie, shippin magnate an business tycoon in the USA, wis fae Dumfries. John McFarlane, CEO of Australie an New Zealand Banking Group Limited (ANZ)) oreeginates fae the toun, as dis William (Bill) Nelson (ADFP) that wis an aw wi ANZ (umwhile AXA, AMP Limited, and Westpac) an an aw faither o Alice Nelson, noo CEO of Centurion Wealth Advisors. The airchitect George Corson that wirked mainly in Leeds, England, wis born in Dumfries and article't tae Walter Newall in the toun.
Politeecian David Mundell wis born in Dumfries as wis William Dickson, William Pattison Telford Sr., an Ambrose Blacklock, aw that made thair merk poleetical in Canadae. Malcolm H. Wright, faither o Sophie B. Wright - New Orleans eddicator an pioneer for weemen's and childer's richts. Suffragette an feminist campaigner Dora Marsden spent the last 25 year o her life being care't for in Dumfries efter her psychological foonder. Dr. Ian Gibson is anither tae leave his merk on politeecs.
James Edward Tait wis a Dumfries-born recipient o the Victoria Cross. William Robertson an Edward Spence are ither Victoria Cross recipients. Robert Jenkinson, 2nt Yerl o Liverpuil, UK Prime meenister fae 1812 tae 1827, wis quartert in Dumfries in 1796 durin his military service.
David Haggart wis a Scots thief an rogue that in 1820 in his escape fae Dumfries Gaol (the site is noo occupeed bi Thomson's the Jewellers) kilt a preeson officer. He wis hangit in Edinburgh in 1821. His deectatit memoir publisht as a chapbeuk becam the subject o the pictur Sinful Davey starnin John Hurt.
A plaque on the waw on the site o the King's Airms Hottle, noo Boots the Chemist's, records the presence there in 1829 o William Burke o the notour Burke an Hare murthers. He wis traivelin tae Ireland efter the trial; his veesit caused a near royet.
John Richardson, naituralist, explorer, an naval surgeon wis born in Dumfries as wis John Craig, mathematician, an James Crichton, polymath. Benjamin Bell efter bein born in Dumfries gaed on tae become considert the first Scots scienteefic surgeon. His ieroe wis Joseph Bell that Arthur Conan Doyle his creeditit Sherlock Holmes as bein lowse sted on fae Bell's obversant mainer. Doyle's faither, airtist Charles Altamont Doyle deed in the The Crichton Ryal Institution an is buirit in the High Cemetery in Dumfries.
Thomas Peter Anderson Stuart left Dumfries tae gang on an foond the University of Sydney Medical School. John Allan Broun's contreebution tae science wis his diskiverys aroond magnetism an meteorology. James Braid, surgeon an pioneer o hypnotism an hypnotherapy, practice't in Dumfries fae 1825 tae 1828 in pairtnery wi William Maxwell. Ian Callum is kenspeckle't in the warld o motor ingineerin.
A Kirk o Scotland meenister the Rev. John Ewart o Troqueer in Kirkcoubrieshire produce't eleiven childers that some hae made a namely merk. Peter Ewart wis an ingineer that wis influential in developin the technologys o turbines an theories o thermodynamics. His brither Joseph Ewart becam the Breetish ambassador tae Proushie. John Ewart, a doctor, becam Chief Inspector o East Indie Company infirmarys in Indie. William Ewart, faither of William Ewart, politeecian, wis a business pairtner o Sir John Gladstones, faither o fower-times Prime meenister William Ewart Gladstone. Gladstone junior wis name't efter Ewart, his godfather.
Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]
As wi the lave o the Breetish Isles, Dumfries experiences a maritime climate, wi cuil simmers an myld winters. It is yin o the no sae snawy locations in Scotland acause o its sheltert law-liein poseetion in the soothwast o the kintra. Fae 2 Julie 1908 the toun haudit the record for the heichest temperatur readin in Scotland, 32.8 °C (91.0 °F) until bein surpasst in Greycrook, Borders, on 9 August 2003.
|Climate data for Dumfries 49m asl, 1961–1990, extremes 1951–1980|
|Record heich °C (°F)||14.3
|Average heich °C (°F)||6.0
|Average law °C (°F)||0.7
|Record law °C (°F)||−13.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||110
|Mean monthly sunshine oors||44.7||68.7||98.4||145.0||180.1||176.7||162.2||156.7||110.8||89.8||61.5||37.9||1,333.5|
|Source #1: Met Office|
|Source #2: ScotClim|
Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]
The River Nith flowes throu Dumfries taewart the Solway Firth in a soothwart direction cleavin the toun intae East an Wast. At law tide, the sea recedes tae sic an extent on the shallae slopin sands o the Solway that the lenth o the Nith is stendit bi 8 mile to 70.7 mile at the maist. This maks the Nith Scotland's seivent langest river. The're several brigs crossin the river within the toun. Atween the Dervorguilla Brig (kenned as "The Auld Brig" an aw) an the suspension brig is a weir kenned colloquial as "The Caul". In wetter months o the year the Nith can fluid the surroondin streets.
Dumfries his a thrang o suburbs includin Summerhill, Summerville, Troqueer, Georgetown, Cresswell, Larchfield, Calside, Lochside, Lincluden, Newbridge Drive, Sandside, Heathhall, Locharbriggs, Noblehill, an Marchmount. Maxwelltoun tae the wast o the River Nith wis ae-time a burgh in its ain richt within the Stewarty o Kirkcoubrie until its incorporation intae Dumfries in 1938; Summerhill, Troqueer, Lochside, Lincluden, and Sandside is amang ither suburbs locatit on the Maxwelltoun side o the river. Palmerston Park, hame til the toun's senior fitbaw team Queen o the Sooth F.C., is on Terregles Street, on the Maxwelltoun side o the river an aw.
Queensberry Square an High Street is the central focal pynts o the toun an the aurie hosts mony o the historical, social, an commercial enterpreeses an events o Dumfries. Durin the 1990s, thir auries enjeyed various aesthetic acknawledgements fae organizations includin Britain in Bloom.
Governance[eedit | eedit soorce]
Scots communitys grantit Ryal Burgh status bi the monarch gairdit jealous the honour an wi fushion. Ridin the Mairches maintains the tradeetion o an occasion that wis, in its day, o muckle importance. Dumfries his been a Ryal Burg syne 1186, its chairter bein grantit bi Keeng William the Lion in a muive that enshuirt the lealty o its ceetizens til the Monarch.
Awtho faur fae the centre o pouer in Scotland, Dumfries hid obvious strategic significance sittin as it dis on the edge o Gallowa an bein the centre o control for the soothwast o Scotland.
Wi the River Nith on twa sides an the Lochar Moss on anither, Dumfries wis a toun wi guid naitural defences. Consequently, it wis niver completely wawed. A carefu ee yet hit tae be keept on the clear define't boonds o the burgh, a task that hid tae be unnertakkin ilk year bi the Provost, bailies, burgesses, an ithers within the toun.
Neebourin lairds micht try tae encroach on the toun boonds, or the Mairches as thay wis kenned, muivin thaim back 100 yaird or sae tae thair ain benefit. It hid tae be made clear tae onybody thinkin o or tryin tae encroach that they daurna dae sae.
In retour for the Ryal status o the toun an the fauvour o the King, the provost an the cooncil, alang wi ither wirthy fowk hid tae be diligent in enshuirin the boonds wis strictly observed. Awtho steepit in history, Scotland's burghs remeent the fundament o the kintra's seestem o local government for centurys. Burgh status conferred on its ceetizens the richt tae elect thair ain toun cooncils, rin thair ain affairs, an raise thair ain local taxs or rates.
In 1974 the burghs becam pairt o lairger destricts an regions. Thae boonds lost the significance thay wis grantit bi Ryal statute. Auncient titles like provost an bailie wis shauchelt aff or reteent anely for ceremonial purposes. Robes an cheens aften fand thair wey intae museums as a myndin o the past.
Dumfries remeens a centre o government for a much muckler aurie nor juist the toun itsel. Bit its fowk, the Doonhamers yet reteen a pride in thair toun an distinctive identity. This is niver mair sae nor durin the week-lang Guid Nychburris Festival an its heichlicht the Ridin o the Mairches tat taks place on the third Seturday in Juin ilk year.
Politics[eedit | eedit soorce]
Dumfries is locatit in the cooncil aurie o Dumfries an Gallowa. It is the seat o the local cooncil, whase heidquarters is locatit on the edge o the toun centre. Until 1995 Dumfries wis an aw hame til the cooncil for the local destrict o Nithsdale. Dumfries lens its name an aw til the lieutenancy aurie o Dumfries, that is seemilar in boonds til the forgane Dumfriesshire coonty.
Dumfries is situatit in the UK Pairlament constituency of Dumfries an Gallowa that is representit bi Alister Jack o the Scots Conservative Pairty For Scots Pairlament elections, Dumfries is in the Sooth Scotland electoral aurie an cleaved atween twa constituencys. The wastlin wairds o Abbey and North Wast Dumfries is in the constituency o Gallowa and Wast Dumfries, and the eastlin wairds o Nith an Lochar is in the constituency o Dumfriesshire. The respecive MSPs is Finlay Carson an Oliver Mundell, baith o the Scots Conservative Pairty.
On the Dumfries an Gallowa cooncal, Dumfries is kivert bi fower 4-seat wairds: Abbey, Lochar, Nith, and North Wast Dumfries. North Wast Dumfries is the anely waird that alanerly kivers auries within the toun itsel, wi the tithers incorporating ootwith auries. In the 2017 cooncil election, thir wairds electit 6 Labour, 5 Conservative, and 4 SNP cooncillors.
Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]
Dumfries is a relatively weel-aff community bit the toun centre his been exposed til the centrifugal forces that hae seen retail, business, eddicational, residential, an ither uisses gravitate taewart the toun's urban freenge. This wis startit in the 1980s wi the biggin o the Dumfries bypass. The immediate effect o this wis as ettle't the diversion o transitin traffeck awa fae the toun centre. This brocht wi it an accompanyin reduction in economic inpit til the toun centre. The seicont effect o this his been mair pronoonce't. Sites near til the bypass hae attractit development tae utilize the bypass as a heich-speed urban hiewey withoot the bottlenecks o the toun centre and withoot the constreenin leemitit toun centre pairkin.
Ina bid tae re-brisken up development in Dumfries toun centere, baith economically an in a social context, several strategys hae been propone't bi the controllin authoritys.
Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]
Dumfries got its eik-name Queen o the Sooth fae David Dunbar, a local makar, that in 1857 stuid in the general election. In yin o his addresses he cried Dumfries "Queen o the Sooth" and this becam synonymous wi the toun.
The term doonhamer comes fae the wey that natives of Dumfries ower the years hae referred til the aurie whan wirking away fae hame. The toun is aften reffered tae as "doon hame" (down home) in the Scots leid. The term doonhamer follaed, tae descrive thaim that origeenate fae Dumfries.
The creest conteens the wirds "A Lore Burne". In the history o Dumfries near to the toun wis the quaw that the Loreburn ran throu whase name becam the rallyin cry o the toun in times o attack - "A Lore Burne" meanin "til the lairie burn".
Museums[eedit | eedit soorce]
Locatit on tap o a wee hill, Dumfries Museum is centre't on the 18t-century windmill that staunds abuin the toun. Includit is fossil fit-dunts left bi prehistoric reptiles, the wildlife of the Solway mosses, tuils an wappens o the earliest fowk o the region, an stane cairvins o Scotland's first Christians. On the tap fluir o the museum is a camera obscura.
sted in the control tour near Tinwald Downs, the aviation museum his an extensive indoor ootset o memorabilia that strives tae preserve aviation heritage, a hantle o it that his come via various rekivery acteevitys. Durin the Seicont Warld War, aerial navigation was taucht at Dumfries and Wigtoun an aw, an nearby Annan wis a fechter trainin unit. RAF Dumfries doobelt as an important maintenance unit an storange unit. The museum is run bi the Dumfries and Galloway Aviation Museum group an is the anely preevat avaiation museum in Scotland. The restore't control tour o the foregane Warld War II airfield is noo a leetit biggin. The museum is run bi volunteers an hooses a lairge and ever-expandin aircraft collection, aero ingines, and a display ootset o artefacts and personal histories relatin tae aviation, past an praisent. It is hame an aw til the Loch Doon Spitfire. Baith ceevil aviation an military aviation is representit.
Theatre an Cinema[eedit | eedit soorce]
The theatre belangs til the Guild o Players that bocht in 1959, tharefore saufin it fae demoleetion, an is run ona volutary basis bi the members o the Guild o Players. It is fondit enteerly bi Guild membership stents and bi box-office quitances takkins. It disna praisently receive ony grant aid taewart runnin costs.
In recent years the theatre his been reruift an the ootside refurbisht. It is the venue for the Guild o Players ain productions an for performances fae veesitin companies. Thir include: Scottish Opera, TAG, the Borderline, and 7:84.
Concert an Event Venues[eedit | eedit soorce]
The Loreburn Haw (whiles kenned colloquial as The Drill Haw) his hostit concerts bi performers sic as Black Sabbath, Big Country, The Proclaimers, an Scottish Opera. The haw his hostit sportin events sic as warstlin. The new DG One sport, fitness, an enterteenment centre becam the principle indoor event venue in Dumfries in 2007, bit in October 2014, it closed acause o major defects diskivert in the biggin. Houiver, the refurbisht replenisht biggin reappent tae the public in the simmer o 2019. The Theatre Royal his reappent an aw follaein renovation wark.
Visual Airts[eedit | eedit soorce]
Wi a collection o ower 400 Scots pentins, Gracefield Arts Centre hosts a changin programme o exheebeetions featurin regional, national, and internatonal airtists and craft-makkers.
Dumfries Art Trail brings thegither airtists, makkers, gaileries, an craft shaps wi venues accessible aw year roond.
Festivals[eedit | eedit soorce]
The're a nummer o festivals that tak place ootthrou the year, maistly sted on tradeetional values.
Guid Nychburris (Middle Scots, meanin 'guid neebours') is the main festival o the year, a ceremony that is lairgely sted on the theme o a positive community speerit.
The ceremony on Guid Nychburris Day follaes a route an sequence o events laid doun in the mists o time. Formal proceedins start at 7.30 am wi the gaitherin o up tae 250 horses waitin for the courier tae arrive and annunce that the Pursuivant is on his wey, an at 8.00 am leave the Midsteeple an ride oot tae meet the Pursuivant. Thay then proceed to Ride the Mairches an Stob an Nog (merk the boond wi stabs an knags) afore retourin til the Midsteeple at 12.15 pm tae meet the Provost an then the Chairter is proclaimt tae the tounfowk o Dumfries. This is than follaed bi the crounin o the Queen o the Sooth.
Syne 2013, Dumfries his seen the annual Nithraid, a wee boat race up the Nith fae Carsethorn, celebratin the toun's historical relationship wi the river.
The region is hame an aw tae a nummer o thrivin muisic festivals sic as the Eden Festival (at St Ann's near Moffat), Youthbeatz (Scotland's lairgest free youth muisic festival), the Moniave Folk Festival, Thornhill Music Festival, and Electric Fields at Drumlanrig Castle afore.
Leebrary[eedit | eedit soorce]
The Ewart Library is a Carnegie library, an wis appent in 1904. Carnegie donatit £10,000 taewart the buildin o the leebrary, an suggestit that it wis name't efter William Ewart, forgane MP for the aurie, and wha wis key in the introduction o actis o Pairlament in baith England an Scotland relatit til the creaution o public leebrarys.
Sport[eedit | eedit soorce]
Queen of the South F.C. represent Dumfries an the surroondin aurie in the seicont level o the kintra's perfaisonal fitbaw seestem, the Scottish Championship. Palmerston Park on Terregles Street is the hame grund o the team. This is on the Maxwelltoun side o the River Nith. Thay raxt the 2008 Scottish Cup Final, losin 3-2 tae Rangers F.C..
Dumfries hame an aw tae a nummer of gowf coorses:
- The Crichton Golf Club
- The Dumfries and County Golf Club
- The Dumfries and Galloway Golf Club
O thae that wis listit anely the Dumfries and Galloway Golf Club is on the Maxwelltoun side of the River Nith. This course is clift intae twa haufs o 9 holes ilk bi the town's Castle Douglas Road. The club hoose an holes 1 tae 7 an 17 and 18 is on the side nearest tae Summerhill. Holes 8 tae 16 is on the side nearest tae Janefield.
The appenin state of the 2001 Tour o Breetain startit in Peebles and finisht 105.8 mile later in Dumfries. The stage wis wun bi sprent speicialist an ringin Tour de France green gansey kemp, Mark Cavendish, wi his teammate leid-oot man, Mark Renshaw finishin seicont. Cavendish hid been schedule't tae be racin in the 2011 Vuelta a España. Houiver Cavendish wis yin o a nummer o riders tae reteer havin suffert in the searin Spaingie heat. This alloued Cavendish tae be a late addeetion tae the Tour o Breetain line-up in his preparation for whit wis tae be a successfu bid twa week later in the 2001 UCI Road World Championship - Men's Road Race . Cavendish in a smilin efter-race interview in Dumfries descrived the weet an windy race condeetions throu the Southern Scots stage as 'horrible'.
DG One complex includes a national event-sized competeetion soumin puil.
The David Keswick Athletic Centre is the principal faceelity in Dumfries for athletics.
The toun is hame an aw tae the Solway Sharks Ice hockey team. The team is praisently Northern Premier League winners. The team's hame rink is Dumfries Ice Bowl, that is kenned an aw as Scotland's anely center o ice hockey excellence, an trials for the Scottish Jr. national team is cairit oot at this venue.
Dumfries Ice Bowl is hame an aw tae twa synchronized skeetin teams, Solway Stars and Solway Eclipse. In addeetion, Dumfries Ice Bowl is hame an aw tae several curliln teams, competeetions, an leagues. Junior curlin teams fae Dumfries, consistin o curlers unner the age o 21, compete raiglar in the Dutch Junion Open sted in Zoetermeer, the Netherlands. In 2007, 2008, an 2009 a Dumfries-sted team hae been the winners o the competeetion's Hogline Tropy.
Eddication[eedit | eedit soorce]
Dumfries haes several primary schuils, aboot yin per key destrict, and fower main seicontary schuils. Aw o thir institutions is governt bi Dumfries an Gallowa Cooncil. the seicontary schuils is;
Dumfries Academy wis a grammar school until adoptin a comprehensive format in 1983.
In 2013 plans for a 'super schuil' wis annunce't. Thir plans wis later dimitit in fauvour o renovatin existin schuils.
In 199 Scotland's first multi-institutional university campus wis estaiblisht in Dumfries, in the 85-acre Crichton estte. In order o campus presence it is host tae the University of the West o Scotland (UWS) (kenned as University o Paisley and Bell College afore), Dumfries and Galloway College, and the University of Glasgow. In its infancy yet, the campus offers a range o degree coorses in initial teacher eddication, business, computin, environmental studies, tourism, heritage, social wark, heal, social studies, nuiricin, liberal airts, an humanities. In maugre o a short-leeved threit o closin tae the University o Glasgow pairt o the campus in 2006, a campaign bi students, academics, an local supporters enshuirt that the University of Glasgow remeent appen in Dumfries. The University of Glasgow, syne maintainin its proveesion in Dumfries, his lencht a new unnergraduate programme in primary teachin.
Healcare[eedit | eedit soorce]
Dumfries and Galloway Royal Infirmary is the principal seicontary care referral centre for Dumfries an Galloway region. It noo includes a maternity wing that replace't the auld Cresswell Maternity Hospital.
The Crichton Royal Hospital is pairt o the Royal Infirmary complex an provides a regional psychiatric, psychological, an speicialist addictions service within Dumfries an Galloway. In 1838 Willam A. F Browne acceptit the poseetion o Physeecian Superintendant at the newly creatit Crichton. It is at the Chricton that Ursula Fleming gaint a hantle o her eddication an experience.
Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]
Dumfries is linkit tae the norwart-gaun M74 motorwey at Beattock via the A701 road. The eastwart-gaun A75 road links Dumfries tae the soothwart-gaun A74 (M), leadin tae the M6 Motorwey an Cairl. The westlin-gaun A75 links Dumfries til the ferry port o Stranrawer. The A76 road connects tae Kilmarnock in Ayrshire.
Dumfries railwey station is locatit on the Glasgow South Western Line. It wis awairdit Best Station Awards bi British Rail in 1986 an 1987. The train service is noo operatit bi Abellio ScotRail that provides services tae Glesga Central station an Cairl, an no sae aften services direct tae Newcastle upon Tyne. The nearest station tae Dumfries on the West Coast Main Line is 14 mile east alang the A709 road at Lockerbie, an the nearest West Coast Main Line station linkin direct tae Dumfries bi rail is at Cairl.
Maxwelltoun station in the Summerhill destrict o the toun wis closed alang wi the direct line tae Stranrawr via Castle Douglas as pairt o the Beeching cuts in 1965. Pairt o the disused railwey track in Dumfries wis later convertit til a cycle paith.
Pairks[eedit | eedit soorce]
The maist significant o the pairks in Dumfries is aw within walkin distance o the toun centre:
- Dock Park - locatit on the East baunk o the Nith juist til the sooth o St Michael's brig
- Castledykes Park - as the name suggests on the site o a foregane castle
- Mill Green (kenned an aw as Deer Park, awtho the deer that wis there hae syne been relocatit) - on the Wast baunk o the Nith conter Whitesands
Braidcastin[eedit | eedit soorce]
Dumfries is hame tae yin o the 11 BBC studios in Scotland.
West Sound FM, pairt o the Bauer Media Group, braidcasts fae Dumfries, an is an aw the main radio station for the aurie. Community radio station Alive 107.3 braidcasts on 107.3 FM in Dumfries an online.
In 2018, Dumfries got a new radio station, Dumfries Community Radio. Kenned an aw as DCR Online, it isna a tradeetional FM radio station, bit an online radio station.
Local jurnalism[eedit | eedit soorce]
The twa local newspapers that kiver speceefic Dumfries an the surroondi aurie is:
- Dumfries and Galloway Standard (estaiblisht 1843) publishin on Tysdays an Fridays
- Dumfries Courier publishing on Fridays publishin on Fridays
Airchitectural geology[eedit | eedit soorce]
The're mony biggins in Dumfries made fae saundstane o the local Locharbriggs quarrel. The quarrel is situatit aff the A701 on the north o Dumfries at Locharbriggs near til hte aggregates quarrel. This dimension stane quarrel is a lairge quarrel. Quarrel wirkin at Locharbriggs dates fae the 18t century, an the quarrel his been wirked continuous syne 1890.
The're guid reserves o stane that can be howkit at several locations. On average the stane is available at deepths o 3 fit on bed awtho some lairger block are obtainable. The average lenth o a block is 4 fit bit 7 fit blocks can be obtaint.
Locharbriggs is fae the New Red saundstane o the Permian age It is a middlin-graint stane rangin in colour fae dreich red tae pink. It is the saundstane uised in the Queen Alexandra Bridge in Sunderland, the Manchester International Convention Centre, an the base o the Statue o Leeberty.
Surroondin places o interest[eedit | eedit soorce]
As the lairgest sattlement in Soothren Scotland, Dumfries is notit as a centre for veesitin surroonding places o interest. The follaein is aw within easy reak:
- Ae an Ae Forest
- Caerlaverock Castle
- Criffel - a hill on the Solway coast faur ben wi hill walkers for its views o the Soothren Scotland coastline an ootower the Solway Firth til the Lake District o Cumbria.
- Drumlanrig Castle
- Ecclefechan - birthplace o Thomas Carlyle. "The Arched House" is a tourist attraction an his been mainteent bi the National Trust for Scotland syne 1936. Ecclefechan is locatit at the fit o the lairge Roman fort, Burnswark, that dominates the laundskip wi its flat tap.
- Gretna Green an the Auld Smiddie, famous for skirt-mairiages
- John Paul Jones Cottage Museum - the tradeetional Scots cot what John Paul Jones in 1747 wis born in
- Kagyu Samye Ling Monastery and Tibetan Centre wis the first Tibetan Buddhist centre tae hae been estaiblisht in the West. It is a centre within the Karma Kagyu tradeetion o Tibetan Buddhism. It is in the veelage o Eskdalemuir in the Scots Soothren Uplands
- Lochmaben wi its lochs popular wi boaters an an aw its history wi Robert the Bruce.
- Mabie Forest - popular destinations for outdoor recreation suc as muntain biking an walkin
- Moffat an the views nearby o the Devil's Beef Tub, the Grey Mare's Tail watterfaw, an the A708 road fae Moffat past the Grey Mare's Tail tae St Mary's Loch
- Minnyhive conservation veelage
- New Abbey Corn Mill Museum an Sweetheart Abbey
- Solway Coast
- Threave Castle in Castle Douglas, hame til the Douglas Clan o James Douglas, Laird o Douglas that fechtit wi Robert the Bruce
- Twynholm an the David Coulthard Museum
- Wanlockheid - Breetain's heichest veelage registert at 1,531 fit abuin sea level an the Lead Mining Museum
Ither places name't Dumfries[eedit | eedit soorce]
Canadae[eedit | eedit soorce]
USA[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Dumfries, Virginia in the US wis estaiblisht formal on land at the heid o the herbour o Quantico Creek, providit bi John Graham. He name't the toun efter his birthplace, Dumfries in Scotland
- Dumfries, Minnesota
- Dumfries, Iowa
Ither[eedit | eedit soorce]
Twin touns[eedit | eedit soorce]
– Cantù, Italy. Dumfries an Galloway Cooncil hisna been involved in ony offeecial twinnin link atween the twa touns for some time. The bond his been mainteened throu the Freends o Cantu an the Nithsdale Twinnin Association.
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<ref>tag; name "2012pop3a" defined multiple times wi different content
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[eedit | eedit soorce]
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Dumfries.|
- https://www.nationalgalleries.org/art-and-artists/artists/james-norie-senior James Norie Senior
- Dumfries an Galloway Cooncil Wsbsteid
- www.loreburne.co.uk A Guide tae.....Dumfries
- Dumfries and Galloway Museums Archived 2020-02-22 at the Wayback Machine
- National Leebrary o Scotland: Scots Screen Archaee—selection of archaee picturs aboot Dumfries
- Dumfries Ceevil Pairish Historical Tax Rolls in Dumfriesshire
- Video footage an history o Dumfries railwey station
- Video and history of the Burns Mausoleum, Dumfries.
- Things Tae See an Dae & Attractions in Dumfries
- (in Inglis) Dumfries at Wikivoyage
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