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Wanlockheid veelage
Wanlockheid is located in Scotland
Location within Scotland
OS grid referenceNS871129
Cooncil area
Lieutenancy area
Sovereign stateUnitit Kinrick
Post tounBiggar
Postcode destrictML12
EU PairlamentScotland
UK Pairlament
Scots Pairlament
Leet o places
55°23′49″N 3°46′37″W / 55.397°N 3.777°W / 55.397; -3.777Coordinates: 55°23′49″N 3°46′37″W / 55.397°N 3.777°W / 55.397; -3.777

Wanlockheid is a veelage in Dumfries an Gallowa, Scotland, nestlin in the Lowther Hills an 1 mile sooth o Leidhills at the heid o the Minnock Pass, that forms pairt o the Soothren Uplands. It is Scotland's heichest veelage,[1][2][3] at an altitude o 1,350 fit,[4] an can be aiccesst via the B797 road, that connects it til the A76 road near Sanchar an the A74 (M) motorwey at Aibintoun.[5][6]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The veelage wis cried Winlocke until 1566, derived fae the Gaelic Cuingealach (the narirae pass).

Wanlockheid awes its presence tae leid an ither meeneral poses in the surroondin hills. Thir poses wis first howkit by the Romans, an fae the 13t century thay begoud tae be wrocht again in the simmer. The veelage wis foondit permanent in 1680 whan the Duke o Buccleuch built a leid-meltin warks an wirker's cots.[7]

Leid, zinc, capper, an siller wis howkit nearby, as weel as some o the warld's purest gowd at 22.8 carats, that wis uised tae mak the Scots Croun. Wanlockheid becam kenned as "God's treisur hoose" fae the riches o its meeneral resoorces.[7]

William Symington, Ingineer.

In maugre o the brainch railwey, the Leadhills and Wanlockhead Railway, the heichest in Scotland an aw, that served the veelage fae 1901 tae 1939, the leid minin industry dwyne't in the 20t century an finisht in the 1950s.[8] Fae 1850 the Glasgow and South Western Railway hid providit sidins at Mennock Lye Goods Depot for the uiss o the Wanlockhead and Leidhills mines.

The veelage hid a curlin club that wis formt in 1777 an the war an aw quoits, boulin clubs, a drama group, an a siller baund that hid instruments purchased for thaim by the Duke o Buccleuch.[7]

William Symington wis fae Leidhills, bit bade and wrocht in Wanlockheid. His fame lies in the fact that he designt the ingine uised tae pouer the warld's first steamboat. This boat wis testit successfu on Dalswintoun Loch near Ellisland on 14 October 1788. Dalswintoun wis the hame o Robert Burns's laird, Patrick Miller.[6][9]

Robert Burns[eedit | eedit soorce]

Robert Burns an a companion, Thomas Sloane, veesitit Wanlockheid in the winter o 1789-90. The wather wis verra icy an thay decidit tae hae thair horse's shuin 'frostit', that is shairpit sae as tae increase thair grip. Thay hid tae wait thair turn an sheltert at Ramage's Inn, whaur Burns wrate a poem entitle't Pegasus at Wanlockhead. Pegasus wis the name o Burns's horse.[6][10] Burns an aw veesitit Wanlockheid in Januar 1792 sae as tae explore the leid mines. He wis accompanit by Maria Riddell, the sister o Robert Riddell o Freers Carse. Thay brakfastit at Sanchar an than teuk a chaise til the mines. Thay gaed a conseederable wey intil the mines, gainstaundin the daurk, weet, an scrimpit condeetions at first; houiver thay hid tae retour as Burns fand the puir air verra distressin. Burns didna record this veesit, bit Maria includit the details in a letter.[11]

Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wanlockheid his a moist Oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), wi cuil tae airish wather oothrou the year, awmaist a Subpolar Oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfc). This toun his cuil simmers an airish winters, wi snawfaws. It is yin o the cauldest bidden-in places in the Unitit Kinrick.

Climate data for Wanlockhead
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average heich °C (°F) 3.5
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.8
Average law °C (°F) −1.9
Average precipitation mm (inches) 154
Source: Climate-data.org[12]

Faceelitys[eedit | eedit soorce]

The veelage noo featurs a leid-minin museum an industrial gear fae the 18t century an is a popular tourist destination.

Wanlockheid is on the Soothren Upland Wey, a walkin trail that tradeetional stairts at Portpaitrick on the wast coast, in Dumfries an Gallowa, and finishes some 212 mile awa at Cockburnspaith in The Mairches.

The veelage is an aw the hame o the heichest tavern in Scotland, the Wanlockheid Inn that appent in 2003; an earlier tavern situatit on a track risin fae the ither side o the main road throu the veelage wis considerable heicher bit it closed in late 1990s.

The veelage is the settin for the BBC televeesion drama Hope Springs.

Wanlockheid leebrary[eedit | eedit soorce]

The auld Wanlockhead Pickmen's Library, noo the Museum of Lead Mining, Wanlockheid.

Wanlockheid Pickmen's Leebrary is the seicont-auldest stent leebrary in Great Breetain an wis estaiblisht on 1 November 1756 wi 32 male members that mainly fondit the purchase o the beuks, etc; a contreebution was an aw made by minin companies that wis ettlesome tae forder sic acts o "sel-impruivement" amang the pickmen. The Duke o Buccleuch, as the laird, wis a major patron o the leebrary. The leebrary wis necessar in forderin a level o eddicational achievement that alloued some pickmen an thair childer tae escape the brastle o mine wirkin.

The schuil hoosed the leebrary at first; bit as the nummer o beuks increased, it becam necessar in 1787 tae flit the leebrary til a cot gien for this purpose by the mine owersmen. Houiver the cot wis a smaw yin an it wis fund tae be necessar tae build a lairger biggin. The nummer o beuks purchased throu stents hinderly rase tae 2,000 an in 1851 a new leebrary wis built an endures tae this day.[13] In 1974 the Wanlockhead Museum Trust teuk ower the rinnin o the leebrary.[14]

The Pickmen's Leebrary becam a Recognised Collection of National Significance in October 2007.[15]

Meadowfoot seemetry[eedit | eedit soorce]

This seemetry lies aboot 1 mile fae the veelage an dates fae 1751. Afore Wanlockheid hid its ain haly-muild, coffins hid tae be transportit alang a teepical corp road the 8 mile til the nearest haly-muild, that wis at Sanchar. William Philip Minder that deed on 2 Apryle 1751 aged juist 10 month wis the first buirial at the new-appent buirial site.[5]

Geeg Ingine[eedit | eedit soorce]

Hydraulic pumpin ingine at Wanlockhead

The geeg ingine an watter bucket pumps wis introduce't intae Wanlockheid in 1745. The history o the geeg ingine isna certaint, bit accoonts o seemilar ingines hae been recordit on a coal mine at Canonbie, Dumfriesshire, in the 1790s. The Wanlockheid Geeg Ingine wis built supposed in the mid o the 19t century an is the anely lastin example o a watter bucket pumpin ingine tae be seen on a mine in the UK nouadays.

The geeg ingine alloued pickmen tae conteena wirkin in the Straitsteps mine, an estimatin that the war twa blauds o the bauk per meenit, this ingine wad hae been able tae lift aroond 1,600 gallon per oor an requirin a bit attention it wad hae been left tae dae this 24 oor a day.[16] The widden bucket wis fed fae a cistren abuin an ance the wecht o the watter wis greater nor water abuin the pump piston the bauk wis liftit, cairyin watter fae up tae 92 fit belaw grund intil a timmer-line't cundie that cairit it aff til the nearby burn.

Raiglar the wecht o the piston wis tiftit sae that it remeent mair hivy nor the empie bucket, enshuirin that the bauk fell tae stairt the cycle again.[17]

The Secretar o State for Scotland in 1972 teuk on the gairdianship o the geeg ingine, makin it Scotland's third Industrial Monument. Historic Scotland awns an mainteens the the ingine. A wirkin model o the ingine is locatit in the Musem of Scottish Lead Mining.[18]

Lowther Hills Ski Centre[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wanlockheid is yin o the birthplaces o Scots winter sports. Curlin in Wanlockheid can be trackit back tae 1777, what the Wanlockheid Curling Society - yin o Scotland's first Curlin societys - wis creatit. Scotland's first boys' Curlin club wis estaiblisht in Wanlockheid in 1883. Sport remeent popular in the aurie until the 1930s, what the mines closed.

Syne the 1920s skiin in the Wanlockheid aurie his been guidit aff an on by a succession o loccal woners as weel as several no-for-profit sports clubs. Lowther Hill, abuin the veelage, is hame til the anely ski aurie in the sooth o Scotland, and Scotland's anely community-awnt ski centre. Admeenistert by the Lowther Hills Ski Club, the ski centre rins three ski lifts abuin the veelages o Leidhills and Wanlockheid for beginners an middlin skiiers.[19]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Wanlockhead Visitor Guide". Visit Scotland. Retrieved 17 Apryle 2019. Wanlockhead is Scotland’s highest village
  2. Phoebe Keane (17 Apryle 2019). "Where is Scotland's highest village?". BBC. Retrieved 17 Apryle 2019.
  3. "Where is Scotland's highest village?". More or Less. 15 Apryle 2019. BBC. World Service. Retrieved 17 Apryle 2019.
  4. https://www.bing.com/maps?q=wanlockhead&mkt=en&FORM=HDRSC4
  5. a b "Lead Mining Museum". Archived frae the original on 2 August 2009. Retrieved 26 Februar 2020.
  6. a b c Mackay 1988, p. 155
  7. a b c Undiscovered Scotland
  8. Keggans 2004, pp. 4-7.
  9. Mackay 1988, p. 36.
  10. Dougall 1911, p. 255.
  11. Mackay 1988, p. 156
  12. "Climate: Wanlockhead". Climate-data.org.
  13. "Wanlockhead Library". Archived frae the original on 31 Julie 2009. Retrieved 26 Februar 2020.
  14. British Archives : A Guide to Archive Resources in the United Kingdom. Foster, Janet., Sheppard, Julia., Storey, Richard. (Fourth ed.). London. p. 51. ISBN 9781349652303. OCLC 1004384141.CS1 maint: others (link)
  15. "Seven More Scottish Museum Collections Get Recognition | Culture24". www.culture24.org.uk. Archived frae the original on 31 Januar 2016. Retrieved 25 Januar 2016.
  16. Wanlockhead Museum Trust 2004, p. 11.
  17. Wanlockhead Museum Trust 2004, p. 12.
  18. Wanlockhead Museum Trust 2004, p. 13.
  19. "Lowther Hills Ski Club". Archived frae the original on 26 Februar 2020. Retrieved 26 Februar 2020.

Soorces[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Dougall, Charles S. (1911). The Burns Country. London: A & C Black.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Keggans, Sandie (2004). Transporting the Lead. Wanlockhead Museum Trust. ISBN 978-0-9530645-3-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Wanlockhead Museum Trust (2004). Lochnell Mine & The Wanlockhead Beam Engine. Wanlockhead Museum Trust. ISBN 978-0-9530645-6-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Mackay, James A. (1988). Burns-lore of Dumfries and Galloway. Ayr: Alloway Publishing. ISBN 978-0-907526-36-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Muir, Richard (2008). Woods, Hedgerows and Leafy Lanes. Stroud: Tempus. ISBN 978-0-7524-4615-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

External links[eedit | eedit soorce]