Charles Darwin

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Charles Darwin
FRS FRGS FLS FZS
Charles Darwin seated crop.jpg
Darwin, c. 1854, whan he wis preparin On the Oreegin o Speshies for publication[1]
Born Charles Robert Darwin
12 Februar 1809(1809-02-12)
The Mount, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, Ingland
Died 19 Apryle 1882(1882-04-19) (aged 73)
Down House, Downe, Kent, Ingland
Kent for The Voyage o the Beagle
On the Oreegin o Species
The Strynd o Man
Hauf-marrae(s) Emma Wedgwood (m. 1839)
Childer 10
Awairds
Scientific career
Fields Naitural history, geology
Institutions

Tertiary eddication:
Varsity o Edinburgh Medical School (medicine, na degree)
Christ's College, Cambridge Bachelor o Airts (1831)
Master o Airts (1836)[4]

Professional institution:
Geological Society o Lunnon
Academic advisors John Stevens Henslow
Adam Sedgwick
Influences Charles Lyell
Alexander von Humboldt
John Herschel
Thomas Malthus
Influenced Hooker, Huxley, Romanes, Haeckel, Lubbock
Signatur "Charles Darwin", wi the surname unnerlined bi a dounwart curve that mimics the curve o the ineetial "C"

Charles Robert Darwin, FRS FRGS FLS FZS[2] (/ˈdɑːrwɪn/;[5] 12 Februar 1809 – 19 Apryle 1882) wis an Inglis naituralist, geologist an biologist,[6] best kent for his contrributions tae the science o evolution.[I] His proposeetion that aw speshies o life hae descendit ower time frae common ancestors is nou widely acceptit, an conseedert a foondational concept in science.[7] In a jynt publication wi Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scienteefic theory that this branchin paitern o evolution resultit frae a process that he cried naitural selection, in that the struggle for exeestence haes a seemilar effect tae the artifeecial selection involved in selective breedin.[8]

Darwin published his theory o evolution wi compellin evidence in his 1859 beuk On the Oreegin o Speshies, owercomin scienteefic rejection o earlier concepts o transmutation o species.[9][10] Bi the 1870s, the scienteefic commonity an a majority o the eddicated public haed acceptit evolution as a fact. Houiver, mony favoured competin explanations an it wis nae till the emergence o the modren evolutionary synthesis frae the 1930s tae the 1950s that a braid consensus developit in that naitural selection wis the basic mechanism o evolution.[11][12] Darwin's scienteefic diskivery is the unifyin theory o the life sciences, explainin the diversity o life.[13][14]

Darwin's early interest in naitur led him tae neglect his medical education at the Varsity o Edinburgh; insteid, he helped tae investigate marine invertebrates. Studies at the Varsity o Cambridge (Christ's College) encouraged his passion for naitural science.[15] His five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist that's observations an theories supportit Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas, an publication o his jurnal o the voyage made him famous as a popular author.[16]

Puzzled bi the geografical distribution o wildlife an fossils he collectit on the voyage, Darwin begoud detailed investigations, an in 1838 conceived his theory o naitural selection.[17] Awtho he discussed his ideas wi several naituralists, he needit time for extensive resairch an his geological wark haed priority.[18] He wis writin up his theory in 1858 whan Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay that descrived the same idea, promptin immediate jynt publication o baith o thair theories.[19] Darwin's wark established evolutionary strynd wi modification as the dominant scienteefic explanation o diversification in naitur.[11] In 1871 he examined human evolution an sexual selection in The Strynd o Man, an Selection in Relation tae Sex, follaed bi The Expression o the Emotions in Man an Ainimals (1872). His resairch on plants wis published in a series o beuks, an in his final beuk, The Formation o Vegetable Mould, throu the Actions o Wirms (1881), he examined yirdwirms an thair effect on sile.[20][21]

Darwin haes been descrived as ane o the maist influential feegurs in human history,[22] an he wis honoured bi buirial in Wastmeenster Aibey.[23]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Freeman 2007, p. 76.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Fellows of the Royal Society". London: Royal Society. Archived frae the oreeginal on 2015-03-16. 
  3. Darwin in Cambridge Archived 23 Mairch 2017[Date mismatch] at the Wayback Machine.
  4. Charles Darwin's personal finances revealed in new find Archived 19 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. "Darwin" Archived 18 Julie 2014[Date mismatch] at the Wayback Machine. entry in Collins English Dictionary.
  6. Desmond, Moore & Browne 2004
  7. Coyne, Jerry A. (2009). Why Evolution is True. Viking. pp. 8–11. ISBN 978-0-670-02053-9. 
  8. Larson 2004, pp. 79–111
  9. Coyne, Jerry A. (2009). Why Evolution is True. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 17. ISBN 0-19-923084-6. In The Origin, Darwin provided an alternative hypothesis for the development, diversification, and design of life. Much of that book presents evidence that not only supports evolution, but at the same time refutes creationism. In Darwin's day, the evidence for his theories was compelling, but not completely decisive. 
  10. Glass, Bentley (1959). Forerunners of Darwin. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. iv. ISBN 0-8018-0222-9. Darwin's solution is a magnificent synthesis of evidence...a synthesis...compelling in honesty and comprehensiveness 
  11. 11.0 11.1 van Wyhe 2008
  12. Bowler 2003, pp. 178–179, 338, 347
  13. The Complete Works of Darwin Online – Biography. Archived 7 Januar 2007[Date mismatch] at the Wayback Machine. darwin-online.org.uk. Retrieved 2006-12-15
    Dobzhansky 1973
  14. As Darwinian scholar Joseph Carroll of the University of Missouri–St. Louis puts it in his introduction to a modern reprint of Darwin's work: "The Origin of Species has special claims on our attention. It is one of the two or three most significant works of all time—one of those works that fundamentally and permanently alter our vision of the world...It is argued with a singularly rigorous consistency but it is also eloquent, imaginatively evocative, and rhetorically compelling." Carroll, Joseph, ed. (2003). On the origin of species by means of natural selection. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview. p. 15. ISBN 1-55111-337-6. 
  15. Leff 2000, About Charles Darwin
  16. Desmond & Moore 1991, pp. 210, 284–285
  17. Desmond & Moore 1991, pp. 263–274
  18. van Wyhe 2007, pp. 184, 187
  19. Beddall, B. G. (1968). "Wallace, Darwin, and the Theory of Natural Selection" (PDF). Journal of the History of Biology. 1 (2): 261–323. doi:10.1007/BF00351923. Archived (PDF) frae the oreeginal on 30 October 2012. 
  20. Freeman 1977
  21. "AboutDarwin.com – All of Darwin's Books". www.aboutdarwin.com. Archived frae the oreeginal on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016. 
  22. "Special feature: Darwin 200". New Scientist. Archived frae the oreeginal on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  23. "Westminster Abbey » Charles Darwin". Westminster Abbey » Home. 2 January 2016. Archived frae the oreeginal on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2 January 2016. 
    Leff 2000, Darwin's Burial