The Scots fowk (Scots Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, is a naition an ethnic group native tae Scotland. Historically thay cam frae a mellin o the Pechts an Gaels, incorporatin neebourin Breetons tae the sooth as weel as invadin Germanic fowks sic as the Anglo-Saxons an the Norse.
In modren uiss, "Scots fowk" or "Scots" is uised for tae refer tae onybody that's lingueestic, cultural, faimily ancestral or genetic oreegins is frae 'ithin Scotland. The Laitin wird Scotti oreeginally applee'd tae a parteecular, 5t century, Goidelic tribe that inhabitit Ireland. Tho for ordinar conseedert airchaic or pejorative, the term Scotch haes been uised for the Scots fowk an aw , but this uise is nou, tae the maist pairt, bi fowk ootwi Scotland.
ethnic groups o' scotland[eedit | eedit soorce]
In th' earlie middle ages, scootlund saw loads ethnic or cultural groups mentioned in newfanglt sources, namely th' picts, th' gaels, th' britons, 'n' th' angles, wi' th' latter settling in th' southeast o' th' land. Culturally, thae peoples ur grouped according tae leid. Maist o' scootlund 'til th' 13th hunner years spoke celtic languages 'n' thae included, at least initially, th' britons, as weel as th' gaels 'n' th' picts. germanic peoples included th' angles o' northumbria, wha settled in south-eastern scootlund in th' region atween th' firth o' forth tae th' north 'n' th' water tweed tae th' sooth. Thay an' a' occupied th' south-west o' scootlund up tae 'n' anaw th' plain o' kyle 'n' thair leid, auld sassenach, wis th' earliest form o' th' leid whilk eventually became kent as scots.
Use o' th' gaelic leid spread throo'oot nearly th' hail o' scootlund by th' 9th century, reaching a peak in th' 11th tae 13th centuries, bit wis ne'er th' leid o' th' south-east o' th' country. king edgar divided th' kingdom o' northumbria atween scootlund 'n' englain; at least, maist medieval historians noo accept th' 'gift' by edgar, in ony trial, efter th' efter battle o' carham th' scots kingdom encompassed mony sassenach fowk, wi' even mair ferr mibeez aye, mibeez naw arriving efter th' norman invasion o sassenach land in 1066. South-east o' th' firth o' forth, then in lothian 'n' th' borders (oe: loðene), a northern variety o' auld sassenach, an' a' kent as earlie scots, wis spoken.
St. Kildans sittin` oan th' village wynd, 1886
as a result o' dauvit ah, king o' scots' return fae exile in englain in 1113, ultimately tae assume th' throne in 1124 wi' th' hulp o' norman military force, dauvit invited norman families fae france 'n' englain tae settle in lands he granted thaim tae spread a ruling class loyal tae him. this davidian revolution, as mony historians ca' it, brought a european pure class o' feudalism tae scootlund alang wi' an influx o' fowk o' norman descent - by invitation, unlike englain whaur 'twas by conquest. Tae this day, mony o' th' common fowk names o' scootlund kin trace ancestry tae normans fae this period, sic as th' stewarts, th' bruces, th' hamiltons, th' wallaces, th' melvilles, some browns 'n' mony others.
the northern isles 'n' some bits o' caithness wur norn-speaking (the wast o' caithness wis gaelic-speaking intae th' 20th hunner years, as wur some wee communities in bits o' th' central highlands). Fae 1200 tae 1500 th' earlie scots leid spread o'er th' lowland bits o' scootlund atween galloway 'n' th' hielan line, bein' used by barbour in his historical epic th' brus in th' late 14th hunner years in aberdeen.
From 1500 oan, scootlund wis commonly divided by leid intae twa groups o' fowk, gaelic-speaking "highlanders" (the leid formerly cried scottis by sassenach speakers 'n' kent by mony lowlanders in th' 18th hunner years as "irish") 'n' th' inglis-speaking "lowlanders" (a leid efter tae be cried scots). Th'day, immigrants hae brought ither languages, bit a'maist ilka adult throo'oot scootlund is fluent in th' sassenach leid.
Etymology [eedit | eedit soorce]
Originally th' romans used scotia tae refer tae th' gaels living in ireland. th' venerable bede (c. 672 or 673 – 27 kin, 735) uses th' word scottorum fur th' nation fae ireland wha settled pairt o' th' pictish lands: "scottorum nationem in pictorum parte recipit." this we kin infer tae mean th' arrival o' th' fowk, an' a' kent as th' gaels, in th' kingdom o' dál riata, in th' western lip o' scootlund. It's o' note that bede used th' word natio (nation) fur th' scots, whaur he often refers tae ither peoples, sic as th' picts, wi' th' word gens (race). in th' 10th-century anglo-saxon chronicle, th' word scot is mentioned as a reference tae th' "land o' th' gaels". Th' word scottorum wis again used by an irish king in 1005: imperator scottorum wis th' title given tae brian bóruma by his notary, mael suthain, in th' book o' armagh. this pure class wis subsequently copied by th' scots kings. Basileus scottorum appears oan th' stoatin seal o' king edgar (1074–1107). alexander ah (c. 1078–1124) used th' wurds rex scottorum oan his stoatin seal, as did mony o' his successors up tae 'n' anaw seumas vi.
in modern times th' wurds scot 'n' scots ur applied mainly tae inhabitants o' scootlund. Th' maybee aye ancient irish connotations ur maistly forgotten. Th' leid kent as ulster scots, spoken in bits o' northeastern ireland, is th' result o' 17th 'n' 18th hunner years immigration tae ireland fae scotland.
In th' sassenach leid, th' word cratur is a term tae describe a thing fae scootlund, sic as cratur cratur. However, whin referring tae fowk, th' preferred term is scots. Mony scots fowk fin' th' term cratur tae be offensive whin applied tae people. th' oxford dictionary describes cratur as an auld-farrant term fur "scottish".
Fitmerks[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Bede uised a Laitin form o the wird Scots as the name o the Gaels o Dál Riata. Roger Collins, Judith McClure (1999). The Ecclesiastical History of the English People: The Greater Chronicle ; Bede's Letter to Egbert. Oxford University Press. p. 386. Unknown parameter
- Anthony Richard (TRN) Birley, Cornelius Tacitus. Agricola and Germany. Oxford University Press. Unknown parameter
- Scotch | Define Scotch at Dictionary.com
- "Scotch is still in occasional contemporary use outwith Scotland"
- John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents how the descendants of 19th century pioneers from Scotland who settled in Southwestern Ontario affectionately referred to themselves as Scotch. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the Scotch-Canadian community in the early decades of the 20th century.