The Scots fowk (Scots Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, is a naition an ethnic group native tae Scotland. Historically thay came frae a mellin o the Pechts an Gaels, incorporatin neebourin Breetons tae the sooth as weel as invadin Germanic fowks sic as the Anglo-Saxons an the Norse.
In modren uise, "Scots fowk" or "Scots" is uised for tae refer tae onybody that's linguístic, cultural, faimily ancestral or genetic oreegins is frae 'ithin Scotland. The Laitin wird Scotti oreeginally applee'd tae a parteecular, 5t century, Goidelic tribe that inhabitit Ireland. Tho for ordinar conseedert airchaic or pejorative, the term Scotch haes been uised for the Scots fowk an aw , but this uise is nou, tae the maist pairt, bi fowk ootwi Scotland.
Ethnic groups o scotland[eedit | eedit soorce]
In the earlie middle ages, Scotland saw loads o ethnic or cultural groups mentioned in newfanglt sources, namely the Picts, the Gaels, the Britons, an the Angles, wi the latter settlin in the sootheast o the land. Cultural-like, thae fowk ur groupit bi tae leid's wey o't. Maist o scotland 'til the 13t hunneryear spak celtic lieds an thae included, at least tae stairt wi, the britons, as weel as the gaels an the picts. Germanic fowk included the angles o northumbria, that settled in sooth-east scotland in the region atween the firth o forth tae the north an the water tweed tae the sooth. Thay occupied the sooth-wast o scootlund an aw, up tae an the plain o kyle an thair leid, auld sassenach, wis the earliest form o the leid that became kent as scots, eventual-like.
Uise o the Gaelic leid spreid oothrou near the hail o Acotland bi the 9th yearhunner, raxin a peak in the 11t tae 13t yearhunners, but wis niver the leid o the sooth-east o the kintra. King Edgar divided the kinrick o Northumbria atween Scotland an England; at least, maist medieval historians nou accept the 'gift' by Edgar, in ony trial, efter the efter battle o Carham the Scots kinrick encompassed many Inglis fowk, wi even mair mibbie arrivin efter the norman invasion o Ingland in 1066. Sooth-east o the firth o forth, then in Lothian an the borders (oe: loðene), a northern variety o auld Inglis, kent as earlie Scots, wis spak.
As a result o this, the king o Scots returned fae exile in Ingland in 1113, tae assume the throne in 1124 at the hinder end, wi the help o the Norman military force, Dauvit invitit Norman families fae France an England tae settle in lands he grantit thaim tae spread a rulin class lyal tae hissel. This Davidian revolution, as loads o historians caw it, brocht a European pure class o feudalism tae Scotland alang wi an influx o fowk o Norman descent – bi invítation, no like Ingland whaur it wis bi conquest. Tae this day, loads o the common fowk names o Scotland can trace ancestry tae Normans fae this period, sic as the Stewarts, the Bruces, the Hamiltons, the Wallaces, the Melvilles, some Browns an loads o ithers.
The northern isles an some bits o Caithness wis Norn-speakin (the wast o' Caithness wis gaelic-speakin 'till the 20th hunner years, as war some wee communities in bits o the mids heichlands). Fae 1200 tae 1500 the earlie Scots leid spreid aw ower the lawland bits o Scotland atween Galloway an the Heichland line, bein used bi Barbour in his historical epic the Brus in the late 14th hunneryears in Aiberdeen.
Fae 1500 oanward, Scotlund wis commonly divided bi leid intae twa groups o' fowk, Gaelic-speakin "Highlanders" (the leid formerly cried Scottis by Inglis speakers an kent by mony lawlanders in the 18th hunner years as "Irish") an the Inglis-speakin "lowlanders" (a leid efter tae be cried Scots). The day, immigrants hae broucht ower ither leids, but awmaist ilka adult oothrou Scotland is fluent in the Inglis leid.
Etymology [eedit | eedit soorce]
Oríginally, the Romans uised Scotia tae refer tae the Gaels bidin in Ireland. the Venerable Bede (c. 672 or 673 – 27 kin, 735) uises the wird Scottorum fur the nation fae Ireland that settlt pairt o the Pictish lands: "Scottorum nationem in pictorum parte recipit." We can infer this tae mean the arrival o the fowk, kent an aw as the Gaels, in the kinrick o Dál Riata, in the wastren lip o Scotland. It's tae note that Bede uised the wird natio (nation) fur tae refer tae the Scots, whaur he aften refers tae ither fowk, sic as th' Picts, wi the wird gens (race). In the 10t yearhunner Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the wird Scot is mentioned as a reference tae the "land o the Gaels". The wird Scottorum wis uised again bi an Irish king in 1005: Imperator scottorum wis the title gien tae Brian Bóruma bi his notary, Mael Suthain, ine th book o Armagh. This pure class wis subsequently copied by the Scots kings. Basileus scottorum appears on the Stoatin seal o king Edgar (1074–1107). Alexander (c. 1078–1124) uised the wurds rex scottorum oan his stoatin seal, as did mony o his successors up tae Seumas vi.
In modren times, the wurds Scot an Scots ur applied mainly tae inhabitants o Scotland. The maybee aye ancient Irish connotations ur maistly forgat. The leid kent as Ulster Scots, spal in bits o North-east Ireland, is the result o 17t an 18t yearhunner immigration tae Ireland fae Scotland.
In the Inglis leid, the wird "cratur" is a term tae describe a thing fae Scotland, sic as cratur cratur. Hounaiver, whan referrin tae fowk, thw preferred term is Scots. Mony Scots fowk find the term cratur tae be offensive whan applied tae fowk. The oxford dictionar describes cratur as an auld-farrant term fur "Scottish".
Fitmerks[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Bede uised a Laitin form o the wird Scots as the name o the Gaels o Dál Riata. Roger Collins, Judith McClure (1999). The Ecclesiastical History of the English People: The Greater Chronicle ; Bede's Letter to Egbert. Oxford University Press. p. 386. Unknown parameter
- Anthony Richard (TRN) Birley, Cornelius Tacitus. Agricola and Germany. Oxford University Press. Unknown parameter
- Scotch | Define Scotch at Dictionary.com
- "Scotch is still in occasional contemporary use outwith Scotland"
- John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents how the descendants of 19th century pioneers from Scotland who settled in Southwestern Ontario affectionately referred to themselves as Scotch. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the Scotch-Canadian community in the early decades of the 20th century.