Clan Donald

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Clan Donald
Clan member crest badge - Clan Macdonald.svg
Profile
RegionHieland an Islands
DestrictInverness-shire
Plant badgeCommon heath
Chief
Arms of Clan Macdonald of Macdonald.svg
Godfrey James Macdonald o Macdonald
The 8t Baron Macdonald, Chief o the Name an Airms o Macdonald, Heich Chief o Clan Donald an 34t hereditary Chief o Clan Donald.

Clan Donald is ane o the lairgest Scots clans. Thare are mony brainches tae the clan. Several hae chiefs recognised bi the Lord Lyon King of Arms. The clans ir: Clan Macdonald o Sleat, Clan Macdonald o Clanranald, Clan MacDonell o Glengarry, Clan MacDonald o Keppoch, an Clan MacAlister. Weel kent brainches withoot chiefs sae-recognised ir: the MacDonalds o Dunnyveg, MacDonalds o Lochalsh, the MacDonalds o Glencoe, an the MacDonalds o Ardnamurchan. The MacDonnells o Antrim Dinnae belang tae the Scots associations an his thir awn a chief offeecially recognised in Ireland.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Oreegins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Clan Donald kin find it's ancestry fae Dòmhnall Mac Raghnuill (d. circa 1250), whas faither Reginald or Ranald wis cried "King o the Isles" an "Laird o Argyll an Kintyre". Ranald's faither, Somerled wis cried "Keeng o the Hebrides", an wis kilt fichting foreanent Malcolm IV o Scotland at the Battle o Renfrew in 1164. Clan Donald is relatit throu Somerled tae Clan MacDougall, wha kin find thair ancestry fae his auldest son, Dugall mac Somhairle. Thair clans are thegither aft-times referred tae as the Clann Somhairle. Furthermair thay are descendit maternally fae baith the infamous House o Ivar an the Earls o Orkney, throu Somerled's wife Ragnhildis Ólafsdóttir, dochter o Olaf I Godredsson, Keeng o Mann an the Isles an Ingeborg Haakonsdottir dochter o Haakon Paulsson, Earl o Orkney. It is whiles possible that Somerled wis a male line descendant o Echmarcach mac Ragnaill an Ivar o Waterford.

Gaelic tradeetion gae Somerled a Celtic strind in the male line, as the medieval Seanachies traced his lineage throu a lang line o ancestors back tae Colla Uais an Conn o the Hunder Battles. Sicweys Clan Donald claimed tae be baith Clann Cholla an Siol Chuinn (Childer o Colla an Seed o Conn). Possibly the auldest piece o poetry attributit tae the MacDonalds is a brosnachadh (an incitement tae battle) which wis said tae hae been written in 1411, oan the day o the Battle o Harlaw. The first lines o the poem begin "A Chlanna Cuinn cuimhnichibh / Cruas an àm na h-iorghaile," (Ye children of Conn remember hardihood in the time of battle). A later poem made tae John o Islay (1434–1503), last o the MacDonald Lords o the Isles, proclaims "Ceannas Ghàidheal do Chlainn Cholla, còir fhògradh," (The Heidship o the Gael tae the family o Colla, it is richt tae proclaim it), proclaimin the MacDonald genealogy back tae Colla Uais.

Housomeivver a recent DNA study haes shawn that Somerled mey hae been o Norse strind in his male line. Bi testin the Y-DNA o males bearin the surnames MacDonald, MacDougall, MacAlister an aw thair variants, it wis foond that a muckle proportion o men testit hid the same Y-DNA an a direct paternal ancestor. This distinct Y-chromosome R1a1 haplotype foond in Scotland haes been regardit as aften showin Norse strind in the Breetish Isles. Accordin tae the Clan Donald USA DNA Project aboot 22% o testit participants hae this DNA, but despite the sensational claims it remains far fae proven that Somerled hissel wis o paternal Norse ancestry. A non-paternity event remains a possible cause.

Scots-Norse War[eedit | eedit soorce]

The MacDonalds haed aaways supportit Norawa. Housomeivver, this alliance brak when the Norsemen wur defeatit at the Battle o Lairgs in 1263 bi Scots forces. Norawa's King Haakon wis defeatit an his fleet wis wrecked bi the skeely manoeuvres o King Alexander III o Scotland an the Clan MacDougall. Three year later, the Norsemen submittit thair last islands tae the Scots croun. Aonghas Mòr, the son o Dòmhnall, then made peace wi King Alexander III o Scotland.

Wars o Scots Unthirldom[eedit | eedit soorce]

The MacDonalds focht wi Robert the Bruce at the Battle o Bannockburn in 1314. It wis Donald's great grandson, Angus Og o Islay who wis the 6t Laird o the Isles who sheltered King Robert the Bruce. Angus led a sma baund o Islesmen at the Battle o Bannockburn. In recognition o Clan Donalds support King Robert the Bruce proclaimed that Clan Donald wad aaways occupy the honored poseetion oan the richt wing o the Scots airmy.

First Laird o the Isles[eedit | eedit soorce]

The clan takes its name 'Donald' fae the name o the 1st Laird o the Isles who wis the grandson o Keeng Somerled who lived till 1269. Donald's son wis the oreeginal 'Mac' which means 'son o'. It wis Donald's great grandson, Angus Og who wis the 6t Laird o the Isles who sheltered King Robert the Bruce. In recognition o Clan Donalds support King Robert the Bruce proclaimed that Clan Donald wad aaways occupy the honored poseetion oan the richt wing o the Scots airmy.

15t century[eedit | eedit soorce]

Earldom o Ross

The title an territory o the Earl o Ross haed oreeginally been held bi the Chief o Clan Ross. Housomeivver Angas Og's grandson, Dòmhnall o Islay, Laird o the Isles marrit the first female heiress o the Earl o Ross. He later successfully claimed the poseetion o Earl o Ross throu marriage. This wis secured bi the Battle o Harlaw oan 24 Julie 1411 whaur maist o the hieland clans supportit Donald in preventin the Duke o Albany an his airmy o Scots Lawlanders fae claimin the poseetion for hissel. Housomeivver bi 1415 the Earldom o Ross wis lost as Murdoch Stewart, Duke o Albany haed seized Dingwall Castle an Easter Ross. Dòmhnall prepared for war an proclaimed hissel "Lord o Ross". Awtho Albany appointit his awn son John Stewart, 2nt Earl o Buchan as the new Earl o Ross. Housomeivver, later the MacDonald chiefs wad again acome the Earls o Ross, firstly Alexander o Islay, Earl o Ross an then his son John o Islay, Earl o Ross who surrendered the earldom in 1476 tae James Stewart, Duke o Ross.

16t century[eedit | eedit soorce]

MacDonald o the Isles (MakDonnald of ye Ylis) tartan, as published in the Vestiarium Scoticum in 1842.

The poseetion o Laird o the Isles held by MacDonald chief heids syne the 13t century wur revoked in 1495. Regairdless, the MacDonalds wur a pouerful clan an haudit muckle o thair launds till fichtin brak oot in the mids o the 16t century.

17t Century an the Ceevil War[eedit | eedit soorce]

18t century[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Durin the Jacobite risins o 1715 the Breetish Govrenment forces, includin some units drawn fae Clan Campbell focht foreanent the Jacobite rebels, mad up o, amangst ithers, o the men o Clan Donald who wur unner MacDonald of Keppoch an the Clan Macdonald o Clanranald whas chief wis killed. Thair wis some Campbells who teuk the Jacobites' side, led bi the son o Campbell o Glenlyon whas faither haed commandit the govrenment sodgers at the Massacre o Glencoe 22 year earlier. The twa young men buried the hatchet an swore tae be brithers in airms, fechtin side bi side in the Battle o Sheriffmuir. The Breetish forces defeatit the Jacobites.

Clan profile[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Clan chief: Godfrey James Macdonald o Macdonald, 8t Lord Macdonald, Chief o the Name an Arms o Macdonald, Heich Chief o Clan Donald an 34t hereditary Chief o Clan Donald.
  • Chiefly airms: The coat o airms o the current chief is blazoned: Quarterly, 1st, argent, a lion rampant gules, airmed an langued azure; 2nt; Or, a hand in armour fessways holding a cross-crosslet fitchee gules; 3rd, Or, a lymphad sails furled an oars in action sable, Flagged gules; 4t, vert, a salmon naiant in fess proper, ower aw oan an escutcheon en surtout, Or, an eagle displayed gules surmuntit o a lymphad sails furled, oars in action sable (as Chief o the Name an Arms o Macdonald). Abuin the shield is placed his lairdship’s coronet, thereon an helmet befittin his degree wi a mantlin gules doubled ermine, an oan a creest coronet Or is set for creest a haund in airmour fessways couped at the elbow proper hauldin a cross-crosslet fitchee gules, an in an escrol ower the same this motto 'per mare per terras', an oan a compartment o rocks an heather proper issuant fae the waves undy alang wi this motto 'fraoch eilean', are set for supporters twa leopards proper.
  • Clan member's creest badge: The creest badge fur members o the clan his the chief's heraldic creest an motto. The creest is: oan a creest coronet Or, a haund in airmour fessways couped at the elbow proper hauldin a cross crosslet fitchée gules.
  • Clan badge: The clan badge or plant badge attributit tae the clan is common heath. This plant is gien tae the ither Macdonald clans an some ither associatit clans sic-like the Clan MacIntyre an the Macqueens o Skye.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs
  2. "History of the House and Clan of MacKay" (1829) by Robert MacKay, p.53 - 54, quoting from the "Genealogical History of the Earldom of Sutherland" by Dir Robert Gordon (1580 to 1656).
  3. The Battle of Split Allegiances@Clan Cameron.org
  4. Conflicts of the Clans Battle of Blar-na-Pairc@Electric Scotland
  5. "The Clan Ranald".
  6. Notes
  7. MacRuarie – McCreary
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 ’Conflicts of the Clans’ published in 1764 by the Foulis press, written from a manuscript wrote in the reign of James VI of Scotland. [1]
  9. Donald Gregory's History of the Western Highlands and Isles of Scotland from A.D. 1493 to A.D. 1625.
  10. Clan MacLeod@Electric Scotland.com
  11. Roberts, John Leonard (1999). Feuds, Forays and Rebellions: History of the Highland Clans, 1475-1625. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 140–1. ISBN 9780748662449.
  12. Royle, Trevor (2004). Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1638-1660. London: Abacus. ISBN 0-349-11564-8. p.143
  13. The Carolingian Era, macdonnellofleinster.org. Retrieved 28 August 2008

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]