|Region||Hieland an Islands|
|Plant badge||Common heath|
|Godfrey James Macdonald o Macdonald|
|The 8t Baron Macdonald, Chief o the Name an Airms o Macdonald, Heich Chief o Clan Donald an 34t hereditary Chief o Clan Donald.|
Clan Donald is ane o the lairgest Scots clans. Thare are mony brainches tae the clan. Several hae chiefs recognised bi the Lord Lyon King of Arms. The clans ir: Clan Macdonald o Sleat, Clan Macdonald o Clanranald, Clan MacDonell o Glengarry, Clan MacDonald o Keppoch, an Clan MacAlister. Weel kent brainches withoot chiefs sae-recognised ir: the MacDonalds o Dunnyveg, MacDonalds o Lochalsh, the MacDonalds o Glencoe, an the MacDonalds o Ardnamurchan. The MacDonnells o Antrim Dinnae belang tae the Scots associations an his thir awn a chief offeecially recognised in Ireland.
History[eedit | eedit soorce]
Oreegins[eedit | eedit soorce]
Clan Donald kin find it's ancestry fae Dòmhnall Mac Raghnuill (d. circa 1250), whas faither Reginald or Ranald wis cried "King o the Isles" an "Laird o Argyll an Kintyre". Ranald's faither, Somerled wis cried "Keeng o the Hebrides", an wis kilt fichting foreanent Malcolm IV o Scotland at the Battle o Renfrew in 1164. Clan Donald is relatit throu Somerled tae Clan MacDougall, wha kin find thair ancestry fae his auldest son, Dugall mac Somhairle. Thair clans are thegither aft-times referred tae as the Clann Somhairle. Furthermair thay are descendit maternally fae baith the infamous House o Ivar an the Earls o Orkney, throu Somerled's wife Ragnhildis Ólafsdóttir, dochter o Olaf I Godredsson, Keeng o Mann an the Isles an Ingeborg Haakonsdottir dochter o Haakon Paulsson, Earl o Orkney. It is whiles possible that Somerled wis a male line descendant o Echmarcach mac Ragnaill an Ivar o Waterford.
Gaelic tradeetion gae Somerled a Celtic strind in the male line, as the medieval Seanachies traced his lineage throu a lang line o ancestors back tae Colla Uais an Conn o the Hunder Battles. Sicweys Clan Donald claimed tae be baith Clann Cholla an Siol Chuinn (Childer o Colla an Seed o Conn). Possibly the auldest piece o poetry attributit tae the MacDonalds is a brosnachadh (an incitement tae battle) which wis said tae hae been written in 1411, oan the day o the Battle o Harlaw. The first lines o the poem begin "A Chlanna Cuinn cuimhnichibh / Cruas an àm na h-iorghaile," (Ye children of Conn remember hardihood in the time of battle). A later poem made tae John o Islay (1434–1503), last o the MacDonald Lords o the Isles, proclaims "Ceannas Ghàidheal do Chlainn Cholla, còir fhògradh," (The Heidship o the Gael tae the family o Colla, it is richt tae proclaim it), proclaimin the MacDonald genealogy back tae Colla Uais.
Housomeivver a recent DNA study haes shawn that Somerled mey hae been o Norse strind in his male line. Bi testin the Y-DNA o males bearin the surnames MacDonald, MacDougall, MacAlister an aw thair variants, it wis foond that a muckle proportion o men testit hid the same Y-DNA an a direct paternal ancestor. This distinct Y-chromosome R1a1 haplotype foond in Scotland haes been regardit as aften showin Norse strind in the Breetish Isles. Accordin tae the Clan Donald USA DNA Project aboot 22% o testit participants hae this DNA, but despite the sensational claims it remains far fae proven that Somerled hissel wis o paternal Norse ancestry. A non-paternity event remains a possible cause.
Scots-Norse War[eedit | eedit soorce]
The MacDonalds haed aaways supportit Norawa. Housomeivver, this alliance brak when the Norsemen wur defeatit at the Battle o Lairgs in 1263 bi Scots forces. Norawa's King Haakon wis defeatit an his fleet wis wrecked bi the skeely manoeuvres o King Alexander III o Scotland an the Clan MacDougall. Three year later, the Norsemen submittit thair last islands tae the Scots croun. Aonghas Mòr, the son o Dòmhnall, then made peace wi King Alexander III o Scotland.
Wars o Scots Unthirldom[eedit | eedit soorce]
The MacDonalds focht wi Robert the Bruce at the Battle o Bannockburn in 1314. It wis Donald's great grandson, Angus Og o Islay who wis the 6t Laird o the Isles who sheltered King Robert the Bruce. Angus led a sma baund o Islesmen at the Battle o Bannockburn. In recognition o Clan Donalds support King Robert the Bruce proclaimed that Clan Donald wad aaways occupy the honored poseetion oan the richt wing o the Scots airmy.
First Laird o the Isles[eedit | eedit soorce]
The clan takes its name 'Donald' fae the name o the 1st Laird o the Isles who wis the grandson o Keeng Somerled who lived till 1269. Donald's son wis the oreeginal 'Mac' which means 'son o'. It wis Donald's great grandson, Angus Og who wis the 6t Laird o the Isles who sheltered King Robert the Bruce. In recognition o Clan Donalds support King Robert the Bruce proclaimed that Clan Donald wad aaways occupy the honored poseetion oan the richt wing o the Scots airmy.
15t century[eedit | eedit soorce]
Earldom o Ross
The title an territory o the Earl o Ross haed oreeginally been held bi the Chief o Clan Ross. Housomeivver Angas Og's grandson, Dòmhnall o Islay, Laird o the Isles marrit the first female heiress o the Earl o Ross. He later successfully claimed the poseetion o Earl o Ross throu marriage. This wis secured bi the Battle o Harlaw oan 24 Julie 1411 whaur maist o the hieland clans supportit Donald in preventin the Duke o Albany an his airmy o Scots Lawlanders fae claimin the poseetion for hissel. Housomeivver bi 1415 the Earldom o Ross wis lost as Murdoch Stewart, Duke o Albany haed seized Dingwall Castle an Easter Ross. Dòmhnall prepared for war an proclaimed hissel "Lord o Ross". Awtho Albany appointit his awn son John Stewart, 2nt Earl o Buchan as the new Earl o Ross. Housomeivver, later the MacDonald chiefs wad again acome the Earls o Ross, firstly Alexander o Islay, Earl o Ross an then his son John o Islay, Earl o Ross who surrendered the earldom in 1476 tae James Stewart, Duke o Ross.
- Battle o Dingwall, 1411, The Clan Mackay wur defeatit bi Clan Donald. Thay later jynt forces an focht at the Battle o Harlaw.
- Battle o Split Allegiances, 1429, This conflict wis atween forces led bi Alexander MacDonald o Islay, Earl o Ross, 3rd Laird o the Isles an the Ryalist airmy o King James I, Keeng o Scots.
- Battle o Inverlochy (1431), While chief Alexander MacDonald of Islay, Earl of Ross wis imprisoned bi King James I, the Clan MacDonald war led bi Donald Balloch, the nephew of Alexander. The MacDonalds war victorious in defeatin the Earl of Mar's airmy.
- Battle of Blàr-na-Pairc, 1477, Fought atween the Clan MacDonald an Clan MacKenzie.
- Battle o Bloody Bay 1480. The battle wis focht atween John MacDonald o Islay, Earl o Ross, Laird o the Isles an chief o Clan Donald (Eoin Mac Dòmhnuill) foreanent his son Angus Og Macdonald (Aonghas Òg ). John MacDonald o Islay, chief o Clan Donald wis supportit bi men fae the Clan MacLean, Clan MacLeod, an Clan MacNeil. He wis opposed bi his son, Angus Og Macdonald, who wis supportit Allan Macruari, chief o the Clan MacDonald o Clanranald. an Dòmhnall Mac Aonghais (Donald Mac Angus) chief o the Clan MacDonald o Keppoch
- Battle o Skibo an Strathfleet, 1480, John MacDonald o Islay, Earl o Ross invadit Sutherland an focht foreanent men o the Clan Sutherland an Clan Murray.
- Battle o Drumchatt, 1497, In 1495 King James assembled an airmy at Glesga. Then oan Mey 18 mony o the Hieland Chiefs made thair submissions tae him, includin the Mackenzie an Munro chiefs. Suin efter, Alexander MacDonald of Lochalsh an his clan rebelt foreanent King James. He invadit the growthie launds of Ross-shire whaur he wis defeatit in battle bi the Clan Munro an Clan Mackenzie at a place cried Drumchatt whaur he wis driven oot of Ross-shire.
16t century[eedit | eedit soorce]
The poseetion o Laird o the Isles held by MacDonald chief heids syne the 13t century wur revoked in 1495. Regairdless, the MacDonalds wur a pouerful clan an haudit muckle o thair launds till fichtin brak oot in the mids o the 16t century.
- Battle o Flodden Field, 1513, Durin the Anglo-Scots Wars the son o Alexander MacDonald o Lochalsh heidit the Clan MacDonald o Lochalsh foreanent the Inglis airmy. Oan his return he attemptit tae tak control o the govrenment-held Urquhart Castle.
- Battle o the Shirts, 1544, The Clan Macdonald o Clanranald focht foreanent the Clan Fraser at the oan the shores o Loch Lochy. Legend haes it that anely five Frasers an aicht MacDonalds wur alive efter.
- Battle o the Spoiling Dyke, 1578 MacDonalds o Uist an the Clan MacLeod.
- Battle o the Wastren Isles, 1586, Fought oan the Isle o Jura, atween the Clan MacDonald o Sleat an the Clan Maclean.
- Battle o Traigh Ghruinneart, 1598, Fought atween the Clan Donald an Clan Maclean oan the Isle o Islay.
17t Century an the Ceevil War[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Battle o Coire Na Creiche, 1601, Clan MacDonald o Sleat defeatit the Clan MacLeod oan the braes o the Cuillin hills.
- Battle o Morar, 1602, Fought atween the Clan MacDonell o Glengarry an the Clan Mackenzie.
- In 1642 oan Rathlin Island, durin the Erse Rebellion, Covenanter Campbell sodgers o the Argyll's Fuit wur encouraged bi thair commandin officer Sir Duncan Campbell o Auchinbreck tae kill the local Catholic MacDonalds, near relatives o the Scots Hielands Clan MacDonald, this thay did wi ruthless efficiency throwin scores o MacDonald weemen ower cliffs tae thair daiths oan rocks belaw. The nummer o victims o this massacre haes been put as law as 100 an as heich as 3,000.
- The Wars o the Three Kinricks o 1644-47 wis maistly a clan ficht atween the MacDonalds an Clan Campbell. The MacDonalds sidit wi the Ryalists in the Inglis Ceevil War an the Erse Confederate Catholics in the Wars o the Three Kinricks. The Campbells sidit wi the Scots Covenanters. A MacDonald clansman, Alasdair Mac Colla heidit an Erse force in 1644 an landit in Scotland, wi the aim o linkin up wi the Scots Ryalists an takin back the launds that Clan Donald haed lost tae the Campbells. Efter a year o campaignin aroond Scotland, in which Mac Colla's men ravaged the Campbell launds, the twa sides met at the Battle o Inverlochy (1645). This battle wis atween the Scots Argyll govrenment forces o Clan Campbell led bi Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess o Argyll an the Ryalist forces o the Marquess o Montrose mainly made up o Erse O'Kanes, O'Neills, Ulster Erse Clan MacDonald, Clan MacLean an ither MacDonalds. Throu cunnin tactics the Ryalist force o 1500 MacDonalds, Erse an MacLeans defeatit the Argyll Campbell force o 3000.
- In 1645 durin the Ceevil War, Kinlochaline Castle o the Clan MacInnes wis attacked an burned bi MacDonalds servin unner James Graham, 1st Marquess o Montrose.
- Battle o Mulroy, 1668, The Clan MacDonald o Keppoch an Clan Cameron defeat the Clan Mackintosh an Clan Mackenzie
- Massacre o Glencoe, 1692, 38 unairmed MacDonalds fae the Clan MacDonald o Glencoe wur murthert in the Massacre o Glencoe when an initiative tae suppress Jacobitism wis entangled in the lang runnin feud atween Clan MacDonald an Clan Campbell. The slaughter o the host MacDonalds at the haunds o thair Campbell guests wis a major affront tae Scots Law an Hieland tradeetion.
18t century[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Durin the Jacobite risins o 1715 the Breetish Govrenment forces, includin some units drawn fae Clan Campbell focht foreanent the Jacobite rebels, mad up o, amangst ithers, o the men o Clan Donald who wur unner MacDonald of Keppoch an the Clan Macdonald o Clanranald whas chief wis killed. Thair wis some Campbells who teuk the Jacobites' side, led bi the son o Campbell o Glenlyon whas faither haed commandit the govrenment sodgers at the Massacre o Glencoe 22 year earlier. The twa young men buried the hatchet an swore tae be brithers in airms, fechtin side bi side in the Battle o Sheriffmuir. The Breetish forces defeatit the Jacobites.
- The Clan Donald focht oan the side o the Jacobites durin the 1745-1746 uprisins wi three regiments fae Clan Macdonald o Clanranald, Clan MacDonnell o Glengarry, Clan MacDonald o Keppoch an the Clan MacDonald f Glencoe fechtin at the Battle o Prestonpans, Battle o Falkirk (1746) an the Battle o Culloden. Muckle MacDonalds wis killed at Culloden awtho mony o them left the field efter seein the slaughter o ither clans who chairged the govrenment lines afore them.
- The Clan MacDonald o Sleat branch did no tak pairt in the Jacobite Uprisins therefore the Sleat possessions wurnae affectit.
Clan profile[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Clan chief: Godfrey James Macdonald o Macdonald, 8t Lord Macdonald, Chief o the Name an Arms o Macdonald, Heich Chief o Clan Donald an 34t hereditary Chief o Clan Donald.
- Chiefly airms: The coat o airms o the current chief is blazoned: Quarterly, 1st, argent, a lion rampant gules, airmed an langued azure; 2nt; Or, a hand in armour fessways holding a cross-crosslet fitchee gules; 3rd, Or, a lymphad sails furled an oars in action sable, Flagged gules; 4t, vert, a salmon naiant in fess proper, ower aw oan an escutcheon en surtout, Or, an eagle displayed gules surmuntit o a lymphad sails furled, oars in action sable (as Chief o the Name an Arms o Macdonald). Abuin the shield is placed his lairdship’s coronet, thereon an helmet befittin his degree wi a mantlin gules doubled ermine, an oan a creest coronet Or is set for creest a haund in airmour fessways couped at the elbow proper hauldin a cross-crosslet fitchee gules, an in an escrol ower the same this motto 'per mare per terras', an oan a compartment o rocks an heather proper issuant fae the waves undy alang wi this motto 'fraoch eilean', are set for supporters twa leopards proper.
- Clan member's creest badge: The creest badge fur members o the clan his the chief's heraldic creest an motto. The creest is: oan a creest coronet Or, a haund in airmour fessways couped at the elbow proper hauldin a cross crosslet fitchée gules.
- Clan badge: The clan badge or plant badge attributit tae the clan is common heath. This plant is gien tae the ither Macdonald clans an some ither associatit clans sic-like the Clan MacIntyre an the Macqueens o Skye.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Clan Donald - List of Family Names, Branches and Septs
- "History of the House and Clan of MacKay" (1829) by Robert MacKay, p.53 - 54, quoting from the "Genealogical History of the Earldom of Sutherland" by Dir Robert Gordon (1580 to 1656).
- The Battle of Split Allegiances@Clan Cameron.org
- Conflicts of the Clans Battle of Blar-na-Pairc@Electric Scotland
- "The Clan Ranald".
- MacRuarie – McCreary
- ’Conflicts of the Clans’ published in 1764 by the Foulis press, written from a manuscript wrote in the reign of James VI of Scotland. 
- Donald Gregory's History of the Western Highlands and Isles of Scotland from A.D. 1493 to A.D. 1625.
- Clan MacLeod@Electric Scotland.com
- Roberts, John Leonard (1999). Feuds, Forays and Rebellions: History of the Highland Clans, 1475-1625. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 140–1. ISBN 9780748662449.
- Royle, Trevor (2004). Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1638-1660. London: Abacus. ISBN 0-349-11564-8. p.143
- The Carolingian Era, macdonnellofleinster.org. Retrieved 28 August 2008