U.S. state

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Cairt o the Unitit States

A U.S. state (abbreviation o Unitit States state) is ony ane o the 50 federatit states o the Unitit States o Americae that share sovereignty wi the federal govrenment. Acause o this shared sovereignty, an American is a ceetizen baith o the federal entity an o his or her state o domicile.[1] Fower states uise the offeecial title o commonweel rather than state. State ceetizenship is flexible an no govrenment approval is required tae muive atween states (wi the exception o convicts on parole).

The Unitit States Constitution allocates pouer atween thir twa levels o govrenment. Bi ratifyin the Constitution, the fowk transferred certain limited sovereign pouers tae the federal govrenment frae thair states. Unner the Tenth Amendment, aw pouers no delegatit tae the U.S. govrenment nor prohibitit tae the states are retained bi the states or the fowk. Historically, the tasks o public safety (in the sense o controllin creeme), public eddication, public heal, transportation, an infrastructur hae generally been considered primarily state responsibilities, awtho aw o thir nou hae significant federal fundin an regulation as well (based lairgely upon the Commerce Clause, the Taxin an Spendin Clause, an the Necessary an Proper Clause o the Constitution).

Ower time, the Constitution haes been amendit, an the interpretation an application o its provisions hae chynged. The general tendency haes been toward centralization an incorporation, wi the federal govrenment playin a muckle lairger role than it ance did. Thare is a continuin debate ower states' richts, whilk concerns the extent an naitur o the states' pouers an sovereignty in relation tae the federal govrenment as well as the richts o individual bodys.

Congress mey admit new states on an equal fuiting wi existin anes; housomeivver, it haes no done sae syne 1959. The Constitution is silent on the quaisten o whether states hae the pouer tae unilaterally leave, or secede frae, the Union, but the Supreme Court haes ruled[2][3] secession tae be unconstitutional, a poseetion driven in pairt bi the ootcome o the American Ceevil War.

States[eedit | eedit soorce]

States o the Unitit States o Americae
Name &
postal abbreviation[4]
Ceeties Established[upper-alpha 1] Population
[upper-alpha 2][6]
Total area[7] Laund aurea[7] Watter aurie[7] #
Reps.
Caipital Lairgest[8] mi2 km2 mi2 km2 mi2 km2
 Alabama AL Montgomery Birmingham Dec 14, 1819
4,874,747
52,420 135,767 50,645 131,171 1,775 4,597
7
 Alaska AK Juneau Anchorage Jan 3, 1959
739,795
665,384 1,723,337 570,641 1,477,953 94,743 245,384
1
 Arizona AZ Phoenix Feb 14, 1912
7,016,270
113,990 295,234 113,594 294,207 396 1,026
9
 Arkansas AR Little Rock Jun 15, 1836
3,004,279
53,179 137,732 52,035 134,771 1,143 2,961
4
 Californie CA Sacramento Los Angeles Sep 9, 1850
39,536,653
163,695 423,967 155,779 403,466 7,916 20,501
53
 Colorado CO Denver Aug 1, 1876
5,607,154
104,094 269,601 103,642 268,431 452 1,170
7
 Connecticut CT Hartford Bridgeport Jan 9, 1788
3,588,184
5,543 14,357 4,842 12,542 701 1,816
5
 Delaware DE Dover Wilmington Dec 7, 1787
961,939
2,489 6,446 1,949 5,047 540 1,399
1
 Florida FL Tallahassee Jacksonville Mar 3, 1845
20,984,400
65,758 170,312 53,625 138,887 12,133 31,424
27
 Georgie GA Atlanta Jan 2, 1788
10,429,379
59,425 153,910 57,513 148,959 1,912 4,951
14
 Hawaii HI Honolulu Aug 21, 1959
1,427,538
10,932 28,313 6,423 16,635 4,509 11,678
2
 Idaho ID Boise Jul 3, 1890
1,716,943
83,569 216,443 82,643 214,045 926 2,398
2
 Illinois IL Springfield Chicago Dec 3, 1818
12,802,023
57,914 149,995 55,519 143,793 2,395 6,202
18
 Indiana IN Indianapolis Dec 11, 1816
6,666,818
36,420 94,326 35,826 92,789 593 1,537
9
 Iowa IA Des Moines Dec 28, 1846
3,145,711
56,273 145,746 55,857 144,669 416 1,077
4
 Kansas KS Topeka Wichita Jan 29, 1861
2,913,123
82,278 213,100 81,759 211,754 520 1,346
4
 Kentucky[upper-alpha 3] KY Frankfort Louisville Jun 1, 1792
4,454,189
40,408 104,656 39,486 102,269 921 2,387
6
 Louisiana LA Baton Rouge New Orleans Apr 30, 1812
4,684,333
52,378 135,659 43,204 111,898 9,174 23,761
6
 Maine ME Augusta Portland Mar 15, 1820
1,335,907
35,380 91,633 30,843 79,883 4,537 11,750
2
 Maryland MD Annapolis Baltimore Apr 28, 1788
6,052,177
12,406 32,131 9,707 25,142 2,699 6,990
8
 Massachusetts[upper-alpha 3] MA Boston Feb 6, 1788
6,859,819
10,554 27,336 7,800 20,202 2,754 7,134
9
 Michigan MI Lansing Detroit Jan 26, 1837
9,962,311
96,714 250,487 56,539 146,435 40,175 104,052
14
 Minnesota MN St. Paul Minneapolis Mey 11, 1858
5,576,606
86,936 225,163 79,627 206,232 7,309 18,930
8
 Mississippi MS Jackson Dec 10, 1817
2,984,100
48,432 125,438 46,923 121,531 1,508 3,907
4
 Missouri MO Jefferson City Kansas City Aug 10, 1821
6,113,532
69,707 180,540 68,742 178,040 965 2,501
8
 Montana MT Helena Billings Nov 8, 1889
1,050,493
147,040 380,831 145,546 376,962 1,494 3,869
1
 Nebraska NE Lincoln Omaha Mar 1, 1867
1,920,076
77,348 200,330 76,824 198,974 524 1,356
3
 Nevada NV Carson City Las Vegas Oct 31, 1864
2,998,039
110,572 286,380 109,781 284,332 791 2,048
4
 New Hampshire NH Concord Manchester Jun 21, 1788
1,342,795
9,349 24,214 8,953 23,187 397 1,027
2
 New Jersey NJ Trenton Newark Dec 18, 1787
9,005,644
8,723 22,591 7,354 19,047 1,368 3,544
12
 New Mexico NM Santa Fe Albuquerque Jan 6, 1912
2,088,070
121,590 314,917 121,298 314,161 292 757
3
 New York NY Albany New York City Jul 26, 1788
19,849,399
54,555 141,297 47,126 122,057 7,429 19,240
27
 North Carolina NC Raleigh Charlotte Nov 21, 1789
10,273,419
53,819 139,391 48,618 125,920 5,201 13,471
13
 North Dakota ND Bismarck Fargo Nov 2, 1889
755,393
70,698 183,108 69,001 178,711 1,698 4,397
1
 Ohio OH Columbus Mar 1, 1803
11,658,609
44,826 116,098 40,861 105,829 3,965 10,269
16
 Oklahoma OK Oklahoma Ceety Nov 16, 1907
3,930,864
69,899 181,037 68,595 177,660 1,304 3,377
5
 Oregon OR Salem Portland Feb 14, 1859
4,142,776
98,379 254,799 95,988 248,608 2,391 6,191
5
 Pennsylvanie[upper-alpha 3] PA Harrisburg Philadelphia Dec 12, 1787
12,805,537
46,054 119,280 44,743 115,883 1,312 3,397
18
 Rhode Island[upper-alpha 4] RI Providence Mey 29, 1790
1,059,639
1,545 4,001 1,034 2,678 511 1,324
2
 Sooth Carolina SC Columbia Charleston Mey 23, 1788
5,024,369
32,020 82,933 30,061 77,857 1,960 5,076
7
 Sooth Dakota SD Pierre Sioux Falls Nov 2, 1889
869,666
77,116 199,729 75,811 196,350 1,305 3,379
1
 Tennessee TN Nashville Jun 1, 1796
6,715,984
42,144 109,153 41,235 106,798 909 2,355
9
 Texas TX Austin Houston Dec 29, 1845
28,304,596
268,596 695,662 261,232 676,587 7,365 19,075
36
 Utah UT Salt Lake City Jan 4, 1896
3,101,833
84,897 219,882 82,170 212,818 2,727 7,064
4
 Vermont VT Montpelier Burlington Mar 4, 1791
623,657
9,616 24,906 9,217 23,871 400 1,035
1
 Virginie[upper-alpha 3] VA Richmond Virginia Beach Jun 25, 1788
8,470,020
42,775 110,787 39,490 102,279 3,285 8,508
11
 Washington WA Olympia Seattle Nov 11, 1889
7,405,743
71,298 184,661 66,456 172,119 4,842 12,542
10
 Wast Virginie WV Charleston Jun 20, 1863
1,815,857
24,230 62,756 24,038 62,259 192 497
3
 Wisconsin WI Madison Milwaukee Mey 29, 1848
5,795,483
65,496 169,635 54,158 140,268 11,339 29,367
8
 Wyoming WY Cheyenne Jul 10, 1890
579,315
97,813 253,335 97,093 251,470 720 1,864
1

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. The oreeginal 13 states becam sovereign in Julie 1776 upon greein tae the Unitit States Declaration o Unthirldom, an ilk jynt the first Union o states atween 1777 an 1781, upon ratifeein the Airticles o Confederation.[5] Thir states are presentit in the order in that each ratifee'd the 1787 Constitution, sicweys jynin the present federal Union o states. Subsequent states are leetit in the order o thair admission tae the Union, an the date gien is the offeecial establishment date set bi Act o Congress. For forder details, see Leet o U.S. states bi date o admission tae the Union
  2. 2017 estimate
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Uses the term "commonwealth" raither nor "state" in its full offeecial name.
  4. Offeecially the "State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations".

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. See the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
  2. Aleksandar Pavković, Peter Radan, Creating New States: Theory and Practice of Secession, p. 222, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
  3. Texas v. White, 74 U.S. 700 (1868) at Cornell University Law School Supreme Court collection.
  4. "Appendix B: Two–Letter State and possession Abbreviations". Postal Addressing Standards. Washington, D.C.: United States Postal Service. Mey 2015. Retrieved Mairch 3, 2018. 
  5. Jensen, Merrill (1959). The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution, 1774–1781. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. xi, 184. ISBN 978-0-299-00204-6. 
  6. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017". Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. December 2017. Retrieved Mairch 3, 2018. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates". Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved Mairch 3, 2018. ... provides land, water and total area measurements for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the Island Areas. The area measurements were derived from the Census Bureau's Master Address File/Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (MAF/TIGER®) database. The land and water areas, ... reflect base feature updates made in the MAF/TIGER® database through August, 2010. 
  8. "State and Local Government Finances and Employment" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 2012. p. 284. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on October 17, 2011. Retrieved Julie 8, 2013. 

Further readin[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Stein, Mark, How the States Got Their Shapes, New York : Smithsonian Beuks/Collins, 2008. ISBN 978-0-06-143138-8

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

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