Massachusetts

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Commonwealth of Massachusetts
Banner o Massachusetts State seal o Massachusetts
Banner Seal
Nickname(s): The Bay State
Motto(s): Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem (Latin)
By the sword we seek peace, but peace only under liberty
State sang(s): "All Hail to Massachusetts"
Cairt o the Unitit States wi Massachusetts heichlichtit
Offeecial leid Inglis[1]
Demonym

Bay Stater (offeecial)[2] Massachusite (tradeetional)[3][4]

Massachusettsian (archaic)[5]
Caipital Boston
Lairgest ceety capital
Lairgest metro Greater Boston
Aurie Ranked 44t
 • Tot 10,555[6] sq mi
(27,336 km2)
 • Width 183 miles (295 km)
 • Lenth 113 miles (182 km)
 • % watter 25.7
 • Latitude 41° 14′ N tae 42° 53′ N
 • Longitude 69° 56′ W tae 73° 30′ W
Population Ranked 15t[7]
 • Tot 6,794,422 (2015 est) [8]
 • Density 840/sq mi  (324/km2)
Ranked 3rd [7]
 • Median hoosehauld income $65,401 (2008) (7t)
Elevation
 • Heichest pynt Mount Greylock[9][10]
3,489 ft (1063.4 m)
 • Mean 500 ft  (150 m)
 • Lawest pynt Atlantic Ocean
sea level
Afore statehuid Province of Massachusetts Bay
Admission to Union 6 Februar 1788 (6t)
Govrenor Charlie Baker (R)
Lieutenant Governor Karyn Polito (R)
Legislatur General Court
 • Upper hoose Senate
 • Lawer hoose Hoose o Representatives
U.S. Senators Elizabeth Warren (D)
Ed Markey (D)
U.S. Hoose delegation 9 Democrats (leet)
Time zone Eastren: UTC -5/-4
ISO 3166 US-MA
Abbreviations MA, Mass.
Wabsteid www.mass.gov
Massachusetts state seembols
Ainimal an Plant insignia
Bird(s) Black-cappit chickadee,[11] wild turkey[12][13]
Fish Cod[13][14]
Flouer(s) Mayflower[13][15]
Insect Ladybug[13][16]
Mammal(s) Richt whaul,[17] Morgan horse,[18] Tabby cat,[19] Boston Terrier[20]
Reptile Garter snake[13][21]
Tree American elm[13][22]
Inanimate insignia
Beverage Cranberry juice[13][23]
Colours Blue, green, cranberry[13][24]
Dance Square dance[13][25]
Fuid Cranberry,[26] corn muffin,[13][27] navy bean,[28] Boston cream pie,[29] chocolate chip cookie,[30] Boston cream doughnut[31]
Fossil Dinosaur Tracks[32]
Gemstane Rhodonite[13][33]
Mineral Babingtonite[13][34]
Poem "Blue Hills of Massachusetts"[13][35]
Rock Rolling Rock[13][36]
Shell New England Neptune, Neptunea lyrata decemcostata[13][39]
Ship(s) Schooner Ernestina [13]
Slogan(s) Make It Yours,
The Spirit of America [37]
Sile Paxton[13]
Sang(s) "All Hail to Massachusetts"[13]
Sport Basketball[38]
Route merker(s)
Massachusetts Route Merker
State Quarter
Quarter of Massachusetts
Released in 2000[40]
Leets o Unitit States state seembols

Massachusetts is the maist populous state in the New Ingland region o the northeastren Unitit States. It is mairchit bi the Atlantic Ocean tae the east, the states o Connecticut an Rhode Island tae the sooth, New Hampshire an Vermont tae the north, an New York tae the wast. The state is named efter the Massachusett tribe, that ance inhabitit the east side o the aurie, an is ane o the original thirteen states. The caipital o Massachusetts is Boston, that is an aw the maist populous ceety in New Ingland. Ower 80% o Massachusetts's population leeves in the Greater Boston metropolitan aurie, a region influential upon American history, academia, an industry.[41] Oreeginally dependent on agricultur, fishin an tred,[42] Massachusetts wis transformed intae a manufacturin centre in the Industrial Revolution.[43] In the 20t century, Massachusetts's economy shiftit frae manufacturin tae services.[44] Modren Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, ingineerin, heicher eddication, finance, an maritime tred.[45]

Plymouth wis the steid o the first colony in New Ingland, foondit in 1620 bi the Pilgrims, passengers o the Mayflower. In 1692, the toun o Salem an surroondin auries experienced ane o Americae's maist infamous cases o mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials.[46] In 1777, General Henry Knox foondit the Springfield Armory, that in the Industrial Revolution catalysed numerous important technological advances, includin interchyngeable pairts.[47] In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led bi disaffectit American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the Unitit States Constitutional Convention.[48] In the 18t century, the Protestant First Great Awakenin, that soopit the Atlantic World, oreeginatit frae the poupit o Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards.[49] In the late 18t century, Boston becam kent as the "Cradle of Liberty"[50] for the agitation thare that led tae the American Revolution.

The entire Commonweel o Massachusetts haes played a pouerfu commercial an cultural role in the history o the Unitit States. Afore the American Ceevil War, Massachusetts wis a centre for the abolitionist, temperance,[51] an transcendentalist[52] movements.[53] In the late 19t century, the sports o basketbaw an volleybaw war inventit in the wastren Massachusetts ceeties o Springfield an Holyoke, respectively.[54][55] In 2004, Massachusetts becam the first U.S. state tae legally recognise same-sex mairiage as a result o the deceesion in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health bi the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Coort.[56] Mony prominent American poleetical dynasties hae hailed frae the state, includin the Adams an Kennedy faimilies. Harvard Varsity in Cambridge is the auldest institution o heicher learnin in the Unitit States,[57] wi the lairgest financial endoument o ony varsity,[58] an Harvard Law School haes eddicatit a contemporaneous majority o Juistices o the Supreme Coort o the Unitit States.[59] Kendall Square in Cambridge haes been cried "the maist innovative squerr mile on the planet", in reference to the heich concentration o entrepreneurial stairt-ups an quality o innovation that hae emerged in the vicinity o the squerr syne 2010.[60][61] Baith Harvard Varsity an the Massachusetts Institute o Technology, an aw in Cambridge, hae been ranked amang the maist heichly regairdit academic institutions in the warld.[62] Massachusetts' public schuil students place amang the tap naitions in the warld in academic performance,[63] an the state haes been ranked as ane o the tap states in the naition for ceetizens tae leeve, as weel as ane o the maist expensive.[64]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Schwarz, Hunter (August 12, 2014). "States where English is the official language". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 29, 2014. 
  2. "Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 2, Section 35: Designation of citizens of commonwealth". The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved February 29, 2008. 
  3. "Collections". Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society. 1877: 435. Retrieved June 10, 2015. 
  4. Jones, Thomas (1879). DeLancey, Edward Floyd, ed. History of New York During the Revolutionary War. New York: New York Historical Society. p. 465. Retrieved June 10, 2015. 
  5. wiktionary:Massachusettsian.
  6. "Massachusetts". quickfacts.census.gov. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 10, 2015. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "U. S. States by size". WorldAtlus.com. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  8. "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau. December 23, 2015. Retrieved January 24, 2016. 
  9. "Greylock RM 1 Reset". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. 
  10. Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  11. "Black-Capped Chickadee:Massachusetts State Bird". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 17, 2015. 
  12. "Wild Turkey:Massachusetts State Game Bird". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 17, 2015. 
  13. 13.00 13.01 13.02 13.03 13.04 13.05 13.06 13.07 13.08 13.09 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.13 13.14 13.15 13.16 13.17 "Massachusetts Facts". Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  14. "Cod: Massachusetts State Fish". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  15. "Mayflower: Massachusetts State Flower". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  16. "Ladybug: Massachusetts State Insect". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  17. "Right Whale: Massachusetts State Marine Mammal". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  18. "Morgan Horse: Massachusetts State Horse". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  19. "Tabby Cat: Massachusetts State Cat". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  20. "Boston Terrier: Massachusetts State Dog". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  21. "Garter Snake: Massachusetts State Reptile". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  22. "American Elm: Massachusetts State Tree". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  23. "Cranberry Juice: Massachusetts State Beverage". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  24. "Blue – Green – Cranberry: Massachusetts State Colors". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  25. "Square Dance: Massachusetts State Folk Dance". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  26. "Cranberry: Massachusetts State Berry". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  27. "Corn Muffin: Massachusetts State Muffin". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015. 
  28. "Baked Navy Bean: Massachusetts State Bean". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015. 
  29. "Boston Creme Pie: Massachusetts State Dessert". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015. 
  30. "Chocolate Chip Cookie: Massachusetts State Cookie". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015. 
  31. "Boston Cream Donut: Massachusetts State Donut". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  32. "Dinosaur Tracks: Massachusetts State Fossil". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015. 
  33. "Rhodonite: Massachusetts State Gem". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015. 
  34. "Babingtonite: Massachusetts State Mineral". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015. 
  35. "Blue Hills of Massachusetts: Massachusetts State Poem". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015. 
  36. "Rolling Rock: Massachusetts State Glacial Rock". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 20, 2015. 
  37. "State Slogans". Ereferencedesk.com. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  38. Levenson, Michael (August 9, 2006). "Can you guess the state sport of Massachusetts?". Boston Globe. Retrieved February 14, 2012. 
  39. "New England Neptune: Massachusetts State Shell". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 23, 2015. 
  40. "The Official Massachusetts State Quarter". theus50.com. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  41. Douglas, Craig. "Greater Boston gains population, remains 10th-largest region in U.S". bizjournals.com. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  42. "Maritime Commerce". National Park Service. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  43. "History of Lowell, Massachusetts". City of Lowell. Archived frae the oreeginal on April 5, 2010. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  44. "Staying Power: The Future of Manufacturing in Massachusetts" (PDF). The Center for Urban and Regional Policy School of Social Science, Urban Affairs, and Public Policy Northeastern University. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  45. "Housing and Economic Development:Key Industries". mass.gov. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  46. "The 1692 Salem Witch Trials". Salem Witch Trials Museum. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  47. "Springfield Armory: Technology in Transition" (PDF). National Park Service United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  48. "Shays' Rebellion". ushistory.org. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  49. "The First Great Awakening – Jonathan Edwards". revival-library.org. Archived frae the oreeginal on April 22, 2015. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  50. "Faneuil Hall". Celebrateboston.com. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  51. "The Temperance Issue in the Election of 1840: Massachusetts". Teachushistory.org. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  52. Packer, Barbara (2007). The Transcendentalists. University of Georgia Press; First edition (April 25, 2007). ISBN 978-0820329581. 
  53. "Images of the Antislavery Movement in Massachusetts". Masshist.org. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  54. "Springfield College: The Birthplace of Basketball". Springfieldcollege.edu. Archived frae the oreeginal on May 4, 2015. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  55. "The International Volleyball Hall of Fame". Volleyball.org. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  56. "Massachusetts court strikes down ban on same-sex marriage". Reuters. November 18, 2003. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  57. "History of Harvard University". Harvard University. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  58. Tamar Lewin (January 28, 2015). "Harvard's Endowment Remains Biggest of All". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2015. 
  59. Richard Wolf (March 16, 2016). "Meet Merrick Garland, Obama's Supreme Court nominee". USA Today. Retrieved March 16, 2016. 
  60. "Kendall Square Initiative". MIT. Retrieved December 1, 2016. 
  61. Lelund Cheung. "When a neighborhood is crowned the most innovative square mile in the world, how do you keep it that way?". Boston Globe. Retrieved December 3, 2016. 
  62. [1] Times Higher Education. Accessed December 3, 2016.
  63. [2] Accessed 27 Januar 2017.
  64. "Best States Overall Ranking". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved December 29, 2017. 

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