Iraq War

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Iraq War
Part of the War on Terror
Iraq War montage.png
Clockwise frae tap: Delta Force o Task Force 20 alangside truips o 3rd Battalion, 327t Infantry Regiment, at Uday Hussain an Qusay Hussein's hideoot.; Insurgents in northren Iraq; an Iraqi insurgent firin a MANPADS; the topplin o the Saddam Hussein statue in Firdos Square.
Date 20 Mairch 2003 (2003-03-20) – 15 December 2011 (2011-12-15)
(8 years, 8 months, 3 weeks and 4 days)[1][dubious ]
Location Iraq
Result

Coalition victory

Belligerents

Invasion phase (2003)
 Unitit States o Americae
 Unitit Kinrick
 Denmark
 Australie
 Poland

Iraqi Kurdistan Peshmerga

Invasion phase (2003)

Ba'athist Iraq

Post-invasion (2003–11)
 Iraq

MultinationalForce-IraqDUI.svg Multi-National Force – Iraq

30 ither kintras

Supported By:
 Saudi Arabie
 Egyp

 Kuwait

Post-invasion (2003–11)
Ba'ath Pairty lyalists

Supportit Bi:
 Sirie


Sunni insurgents


Shia insurgents

Supportit Bi:
 Iran
 Sirie


For fichtin atween insurgent groups, see Ceevil war in Iraq.


Commanders and leaders

Iraq Ayad Allawi
Iraq Ibrahim al-Jaafari
Iraq Nouri al-Maliki
MultinationalForce-IraqDUI.svg Ricardo Sanchez
MultinationalForce-IraqDUI.svg George W. Casey, Jr.
MultinationalForce-IraqDUI.svg David Petraeus
MultinationalForce-IraqDUI.svg Raymond T. Odierno
MultinationalForce-IraqDUI.svg Lloyd Austin
Unitit States George W. Bush
Unitit States General Tommy Franks
Unitit States Barack Obama
Unitit Kinrick Tony Blair
Unitit Kinrick Gordon Brown
Unitit Kinrick David Cameron
Denmark Anders Fogh Rasmussen
Denmark Soeren Gade
Denmark Lars Løkke Rasmussen
Australie John Howard
Australie Kevin Rudd
Poland Aleksander Kwaśniewski
Poland Lech Kaczyński
Ukraine Yevhen Marchuk

Ukraine Oleksandr Kuzmuk

Ba'ath Pairty
Saddam Hussein  (POW) Skull and crossbones.svg
Qusay Hussein 
Uday Hussein 
Izzat Ibrahim ad-Douri


Sunni insurgency
Abu Omar al-Baghdadi 
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi 
Abu Ayyub al-Masri 
Al-Nasser Lideen Allah Abu Suleiman 
Abu Dua
Ishmael Jubouri
Abu Abdullah al-Shafi'i  (POW)


Shia insurgency
Muqtada al-Sadr

Abu Deraa
Qais al-Khazali
Akram al-Kabi
Strength

Invasion Forces (2003–2004)
~300,000


Coalition forces (2004–2009)
176,000 at peak
United States Forces – Iraq (2010–2011)
112,000 at activation
Security contractors 6,000–7,000 (estimate)[5]
Iraqi Security Forces
805,269 (militar an paramilitar: 578,269,[6] polis: 227,000)
Awakenin militias
~103,000 (2008)[7]


Iraqi Kurdistan
~400,000 (Kurdish Border Guard: 30,000,[8] Peshmerga 375,000)

Iraqi Airmy: 375,000 (disbaundit in 2003)


Sunni Insurgents
~70,000 (2007)[9]
Mahdi Airmy
~60,000 (2007)[10]
al-Qaeda
~1,300 (2006)[11]

Islamic State o Iraq
~1,000 (2008)
Airmy o the Men o the Naqshbandi Order
~500–1,000 (2007)
Casualties and losses

Iraqi Security Forces (post-Saddam)
Killed: 16,623[12]
Woondit: 40,000+[13]

Coalition Forces
Killed: 4,805[14][15] (4,487 U.S.,[16] 179 UK,[17] 139 ither)
Missin/captured (U.S.): 8 (aw rescued)[18] Woondit: 32,753+ (32,226 U.S.,[19] 315 UK, 212+ ither[20])[21][22][23][24] Injured/diseased/ither medical*: 51,139 (47,541 U.S.,[25] 3,598 UK)[21][23][24]

Contractors
Killed: 1,554[26][27]
Woondit & injured: 43,880[26][27]
Awakenin Cooncils
Killed: 1,002+[28]
Woondit: 500+ (2007),[29] 828 (2008)[30]

Tot dead: 24,219
Tot woondit: 117,961

Iraqi combatant deid (invasion period): 7,600–11,000[31][32] Insurgents (post-Saddam)
Killed: 21,221–26,405 (2003-2011)[33]
Detainees: 12,000 (Iraqi-held)[34]

Tot dead: 28,821–37,405

Documented civilian daiths frae violence, Iraq Body Coont (2003 – 14 December 2011): 103,160–113,728 recordit[35] an 12,438 new daiths addit frae the Iraq War Logs[36] Estimatit violent daiths:
Lancet survey (Mairch 2003 – Julie 2006): 601,027 (95% CI: 426,369–793,663)[37][38]
Associated Press (Mairch 2003 – Aprile 2009): 110,600[39]
Iraq Faimily Health Survey (Mairch 2003 – Julie 2006): 151,000 (95% CI: 104,000–223,000)[40]

For mair information see: Casualties o the Iraq War
* "injured, diseased, or ither medical": required medical air transport. UK nummer includes "aeromed evacuations"
** Tot daiths include aw addeetional daiths due tae increased lawlessness, degradit infrastructur, puirer healthcare, etc.

The Iraq War[nb 1] wis an airmed conflict in Iraq that consisted o twa phases.[41] The first wis an invasion o Iraq stairtin on 20 Mairch 2003 bi an invasion force led bi the Unitit States.[42][43][44][45] It wis follaed bi a langer phase o fichtin, in which an insurgency emerged tae oppone the occupyin forces an the newly furmed Iraqi govrenment.[41] The U.S. completit its widrawal o militar personnel in December 2011.[46][47] However, the Iraqi insurgency continues tae cause thoosands o fatalities.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. The conflict is an aa known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation o Iraq, an the Seicont Gulf War (Gulf War II). It wis referred tae as Operation Iraqi Freedom bi the Unitit States militar, frae 2003 tae 2010.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Last U.S. troops leave Iraq, ending war". USA Today. 17 December 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2011. 
  2. "Sectarian divisions change Baghdad's image". MSNBC. 3 Julie 2006. Retrieved 18 Februar 2007. 
  3. "U.S. says Iraq pullout won't cause dramatic violence". MSNBC. 18 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  4. "UK 'to continue deporting failed Iraqi asylum seekers'". BBC. 22 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  5. "Deputy Assistant Secretary for International Programs Charlene Lamb's Remarks on Private Contractors in Iraq". State.gov. 17 Julie 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2010. 
  6. International Institute for Strategic Studies; Hackett, James (ed.) (3 Februar 2010). The Military Balance 2010. London: Routledge. ISBN 1-85743-557-5. 
  7. Rubin, Alissa J.; Nordland, Rod (29 Mairch 2009). "Troops Arrest an Awakening Council Leader in Iraq, Setting Off Fighting". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 Mairch 2010. 
  8. "The Kurdish peshmerga forces will not be integrated into the Iraqi army: Mahmoud Sangawi — Interview". Ekurd.net. 22 Januar 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2010. 
  9. The Brookings Institution Iraq Index: Tracking Variables of Reconstruction & Security in Post-Saddam Iraq 1 October 2007
  10. Ricks, Thomas E.; Ann Scott Tyson (11 Januar 2007). "Intensified Combat on Streets Likely". Washington Post. p. A01.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  11. Pincus, Walter. "Violence in Iraq Called Increasingly Complex". Washington Post, 17 November 2006.
  12. 260 killed in 2003,[1] 15,196 killed frae 2004 through 2009 (wi the exceptions o Mey 2004 an Mairch 2009),[2] 67 killed in Mairch 2009,[3] an 1,100 killed in 2010,[4] thus givin a tot o 16,623 dead
  13. "Iraq War" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-18. 
  14. "Operation Iraqi Freedom". iCasualties. Retrieved 24 August 2010. 
  15. "Home and Away: Iraq and Afghanistan War Casualties". CNN. Retrieved 30 Mairch 2010. 
  16. http://www.defenselink.mil/news/casualty.pdf
  17. "Ministry of Defence | Fact Sheets | Operations Factsheets | Operations in Iraq: British Fatalities". Mod.uk. Retrieved 17 October 2009. 
  18. "Forces: U.S. & Coalition/POW/MIA". CNN. Retrieved 22 Februar 2011. ; As of July 2012, seven American private contractors remain unaccounted for. Their names are: Jeffrey Ake, Aban Elias, Abbas Kareem Naama, Neenus Khoshaba, Bob Hamze, Dean Sadek and Hussain al-Zurufi. Healy, Jack, "With Withdrawal Looming, Trails Grow Cold For Americans Missing In Iraq", New York Times, 22 May 2011, p. 6.
  19. "Casualty" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-18. 
  20. 33 Ukrainians [5], 31+ Italians [6] [7], 30 Bulgarians [8] [9], 20 Salvadorans [10], 19 Georgians [11], 18 Estonians [12], 16+ Poles [13] [14] [15] [16] [17], 15 Spaniards [18] [19] [20] [21], 10 Romanians [22], 6 Australians [23], 5 Albanians, 4 Kazakhs [24], 3 Filipinos [25] and 2 Thais [26] [27] for a total of 212+
  21. 21.0 21.1 Mony offeecial U.S. tables at "Military Casualty Information". See latest totals for injury, disease/other medical
  22. "Casualties in Iraq".
  23. 23.0 23.1 iCasualties.org (was lunaville.org). Benicia, California. Patricia Kneisler, et al., "Iraq Coalition Casualties"
  24. 24.0 24.1 "Defence Internet Fact Sheets Operations in Iraq: British Casualties". UK Meenistry o Defense. Latest combined casualty and fatality tables.
  25. http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/oif-total.pdf
  26. 26.0 26.1 "U.S. Department of Labor — Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) - Defense Base Act Case Summary by Nation". Dol.gov. Retrieved 15 December 2011. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 T. Christian Miller (23 September 2009). "U.S. Government Private Contract Worker Deaths and Injuries". Projects.propublica.org. Retrieved 23 October 2010. 
  28. 185 in Diyala frae Juin 2007 tae December 2007,[28] 4 in assassination o Abu Risha, 25 on 12 November 2007,[29] 528 in 2008,[30] 27 on 2 Januar 2009,[31] 53 Frae 6 tae 12 Aprile 2009,[32] 13 on 16 November 2009,[33] 15 in December 2009,[34] 100+ frae Aprile tae Juin 2010,[35] [36] 52 on 18 Julie 2010 [37] [38], tot o 1,002+ dead
  29. Moore, Solomon; OPPEL Jr, RICHARD A. (24 Januar 2008). "Attacks Imperil U.S.-Backed Militias in Iraq". The New York Times. 
  30. Greg Bruno. "Finding a Place for the 'Sons of Iraq' - Council on Foreign Relations". Cfr.org. Retrieved 26 December 2011. 
  31. Press release (28 October 2003). "New Study Finds: 11,000 to 15,000 Killed in Iraq War; 30 Percent are Non-Combatants; Death Toll Hurts Postwar Stability Efforts, Damages US Image Abroad". Project on Defense Alternatives (via Common Dreams NewsCenter). Retrieved 2 September 2010.
  32. Conetta, Carl (23 October 2003). "The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict — Project on Defense Alternative Research Monograph #8". Project on Defense Alternatives (via Commonwealth Institute). Retrieved 2 September 2010.
  33. 597 killed in 2003,[39], 23,984 killed frae 2004 through 2009 (wi the exceptions o Mey 2004 an Mairch 2009),[40] 652 killed in May 2004,[41] 45 killed in Mairch 2009,[42] 676 killed in 2010,[43] 451 killed in 2011 (wi the exception o Februar),[44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] thus giving a total of 26,405 dead
  34. "Amnesty: Iraq holds up to 30,000 detainees without trial". CNN. 13 September 2010. Retrieved 6 Januar 2011. 
  35. "Iraq Body Count". Iraq Body Count. Retrieved 14 December 2011. 
  36. "Iraq War Logs: What the numbers reveal". Iraq Body Count. Retrieved 3 December 2010. 
  37. "Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey" PDF (242 KB). By Gilbert Burnham, Riyadh Lafta, Shannon Doocy, and Les Roberts. The Lancet, 11 October 2006
  38. "The Human Cost of the War in Iraq: A Mortality Study, 2002–2006" PDF (603 KB). By Gilbert Burnham, Shannon Doocy, Elizabeth Dzeng, Riyadh Lafta, and Les Roberts. A supplement to the October 2006 Lancet study. It is also found here: [53] [54]
  39. Associated Press, 14 October 2009
  40. "Iraq Family Health Survey" New England Journal of Medicine 31 January 2008
  41. 41.0 41.1 "Iraq War". Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  42. Iraq war illegal, says Annan BBC 16 September 2004.
  43. "The US invasion has caused nearly three-quarter million Iraqi deaths". Wsws.org. Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  44. "A chronology of the six-week invasion of Iraq". PBS. 26 Februar 2004. Retrieved 19 Mairch 2008. 
  45. Kevin Baker "The Quietest War: We've Kept Fallujah, but Have We Lost Our Souls?" American Heritage, Oct. 2006.
  46. Cutler, David (18 December 2011). "Timeline: Invasion, surge, withdrawal; U.S. forces in Iraq". Reuters. Retrieved 18 December 2011. 
  47. "Last US troops withdraw from Iraq". BBC. 18 December 2011. Retrieved 11 Mey 2008.