|Leader(s)||Osama bin Laden (1988–2011)|
Ayman al-Zawahiri (2011 – present)
|Dates o operation||11 August 1988 – present|
Strict sharia law
Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, al-qāʿidah, Arabic: [ælˈqɑːʕɪdɐ], Inglis: /ælˈkaɪdə/ al-KY-də, translation: "The Base" an alternatively spelled al-Qaida an whiles al-Qa'ida) is a global broad-based militant Islamist terrorist organization foondit bi Osama bin Laden sometime atween August 1988 an late 1989. It operates as a netwirk comprisin baith a multinaitional, stateless airmy an a radical Sunni Muslim muivement cawin for global Jihad. It haes been designatit a terrorist organization bi the Unitit States, the Unitit Naitions Security Cooncil, the European Union, NATO, an various ither kintras (see belaw).
Al-Qaeda haes attackit ceevilian an militar targets in various kintras, sic as the 11t September attacks, 1998 US embassy bombins an 2002 Bali bombins. The US govrenment respondit bi launchin the War on Terror. Al-Qaeda haes continued tae exist an grow throu the decade frae 2001 tae 2011. Wi the loss o key leaders culminatin wi the daith o Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's operations hae devolvit frae tap-doun controlled, tae franchise associatit groups, tae lane wouf operators. Wi the daith o key communicators, lik Anwar al-Awlaki, the ability o al-Qaeda's "brand" tae inspire, motivate an instill fear haes shairply declined.
Characteristic techniques include suicide attacks an simultaneous bombins o different targets. Activities ascribit tae it mey involve members o the muivement, who hae taken a pledge o lealty tae Osama bin Laden, or the hintle mair numerous "al-Qaeda-linkit" individuals who hae unnergane trainin in ane o its camps in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq or Sudan, but no taken ony pledge.
Al-Qaeda ideologues enveesion a complete break frae aw foreign influences in Muslim kintras, an the creation o a new Islamic warld wide caliphate. Reportit beliefs include that a Christian-Jewish alliance is conspirin tae destroy Islam. Unner Salafist jihadism thay believe that the killin o ceevilians is releegiously sanctioned, an thay ignore holy text which forbids the murther o ceevilians an an aw internecine fechtin.
Al-Qaeda is responsible for instigatin sectarian violence amang Muslims an aw. Al-Qaeda is intolerant o nan-Sunni branches o Islam an denoonces them wi excommunications cried "takfir". Al-Qaeda leaders regaird leeberal Muslims, Shias, Sufis, Ahmadiyyas an ither sects as heretics an hae issued attacks on thair mosques an gatherins. Examples o sectarian attacks include the Yazidi community bombings, Sadr Ceety bombins, Ashoura Massacre an Aprile 2007 Baghdad bombins.
Designation as terrorist organization[eedit | eedit soorce]
Al-Qaeda haes been designatit a terrorist organization bi the follaein kintras an internaitional organisations:
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
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