Al-Qaeda

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al-Qaeda
القاعدة
Leader(s)Osama bin Laden (1988–2011)
Ayman al-Zawahiri (2011 – present)
Dates o operation11 August 1988 – present
Active region(s)Warldwide
IdeologySunni Islamism
Strict sharia law
Islamic fundamentalism[1]
Takfiri[2]
Pan-Islamism
Warldwide Caliphate[3][4][5][6][7]
Qutbism
Wahhabism[8]
Salafist Jihadism[9][10]
StatusSee belaw

Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة‎, al-qāʿidah, Arabic: [ælˈqɑːʕɪdɐ], Inglis: /ælˈkaɪdə/ al-KY-də, translation: "The Base" an alternatively spelled al-Qaida an whiles al-Qa'ida) is a global broad-based militant Islamist terrorist[11] organization foondit bi Osama bin Laden sometime atween August 1988[12] an late 1989.[13] It operates as a netwirk comprisin baith a multinaitional, stateless airmy[14] an a radical Sunni Muslim muivement cawin for global Jihad. It haes been designatit a terrorist organization bi the Unitit States, the Unitit Naitions Security Cooncil, the European Union, NATO, an various ither kintras (see belaw).

Al-Qaeda haes attackit ceevilian an militar targets in various kintras, sic as the 11t September attacks, 1998 US embassy bombins an 2002 Bali bombins. The US govrenment respondit bi launchin the War on Terror. Al-Qaeda haes continued tae exist an grow throu the decade frae 2001 tae 2011.[15] Wi the loss o key leaders culminatin wi the daith o Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's operations hae devolvit frae tap-doun controlled, tae franchise associatit groups, tae lane wouf operators. Wi the daith o key communicators, lik Anwar al-Awlaki, the ability o al-Qaeda's "brand" tae inspire, motivate an instill fear haes shairply declined.[16]

Characteristic techniques include suicide attacks an simultaneous bombins o different targets.[17] Activities ascribit tae it mey involve members o the muivement, who hae taken a pledge o lealty tae Osama bin Laden, or the hintle mair numerous "al-Qaeda-linkit" individuals who hae unnergane trainin in ane o its camps in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq or Sudan, but no taken ony pledge.[18]

Al-Qaeda ideologues enveesion a complete break frae aw foreign influences in Muslim kintras, an the creation o a new Islamic warld wide caliphate. Reportit beliefs include that a Christian-Jewish alliance is conspirin tae destroy Islam.[19] Unner Salafist jihadism thay believe that the killin o ceevilians is releegiously sanctioned, an thay ignore holy text which forbids the murther o ceevilians an an aw internecine fechtin.[9][20]

Al-Qaeda is responsible for instigatin sectarian violence amang Muslims an aw.[21] Al-Qaeda is intolerant o nan-Sunni branches o Islam an denoonces them wi excommunications cried "takfir". Al-Qaeda leaders regaird leeberal Muslims, Shias, Sufis, Ahmadiyyas an ither sects as heretics an hae issued attacks on thair mosques an gatherins.[22] Examples o sectarian attacks include the Yazidi community bombings, Sadr Ceety bombins, Ashoura Massacre an Aprile 2007 Baghdad bombins.[23]

Designation as terrorist organization[eedit | eedit soorce]

Al-Qaeda haes been designatit a terrorist organization bi the follaein kintras an internaitional organisations:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Atwan 2006, p. 40
  2. http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RS21745.pdf
  3. "The Future of Terrorism: What al-Qaida Really Wants – SPIEGEL ONLINE – News – International". Der Spiegel. 11 September 2001. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  4. The Daily Telegraph. London https://archive.is/oW5v. Archived frae the original on 20 Julie 2012. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. "Jihadists Want Global Caliphate". ThePolitic.com. 27 Julie 2005. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  6. John Pike. "Al-Qaida". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  7. Burke, Jason (21 Mairch 2004). "What exactly does al-Qaeda want?". The Guardian. London.
  8. Saudi Arabia, Wahhabism and the Spread of Sunni Theofascism retrieved 3 June 2012
  9. 9.0 9.1 Moghadam, Assaf (2008). The Globalization of Martyrdom: Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks. Johns Hopkins University. p. 48. ISBN 978-0801890550.
  10. Livesey, Bruce (25 Januar 2005). "Special Reports – The Salafist Movement: Al Qaeda's New Front". PBS Frontline. WGBH educational foundation. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  11. Wilkinson, Paul (2011). Terrorism Versus Democracy: The Liberal State Response. Routledge. p. 136. ISBN 978-0415587990.
  12. Bergen 2006, p. 75.
  13. United States v. Usama bin Laden et al., S (7) 98 Cr. 1023, Testimony of Jamal Ahmed Mohamed al-Fadl (S.D.N.Y. February 6, 2001).
  14. Gunaratna 2002, pp. 95–96. "Al-Qaeda's global network, as we know it today, was created while it was based in Khartoum, from December 1991 till May 1996. To coordinate its overt and covert operations as Al-Qaeda's ambitions and resources increased, it developed a decentralized, regional structure. [...] As a global multinational, Al-Qaeda makes its constituent nationalities and ethnic groups, of which there are several dozen, responsible for a particular geographic region. Although its modus operandi is cellular, familial relationships play a key role."
    See also:
  15. "How al Qaeda works: What the organization's subsidiaries say about its strength", by Leah Farrall, Foreign Affairs, March/April 2011
  16. "The al-Qaeda Brand Died Last week". Forbes. 6 September 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  17. Wright 2006, pp. 107–108, 185, 270–271
  18. Wright 2006, p. 270.
  19. Fu'ad Husayn `Al-Zarqawi, "The Second Generation of al-Qa’ida, Part Fourteen," Al-Quds al-Arabi, July 13, 2005
  20. Ranstorp, Magnus (2009). Unconventional Weapons and International Terrorism. Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 978-0415484398.
  21. Dragons and Tigers: A Geography of South, East, and Southeast Asia – (2011) – Barbara A. Weightman
  22. Security strategy and transatlantic relations (2006) Roland Dannreuther
  23. Jihad and Just War in the War on Terror (2011) Alia Brahimi
  24. Australian Government. "Listing of Terrorist Organisations". Retrieved 3 Julie 2006.
  25. Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada. "Entities list". Retrieved 3 Julie 2006.
  26. Commission of the European Communities (20 October 2004). "Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament" (DOC). Retrieved 11 Juin 2007.
  27. "La France face au terrorisme" (PDF) (in (in French)). Secrétariat général de la défense nationale (France). Retrieved 6 August 2009.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  28. "The Hindu : Centre bans Al-Qaeda". Hinduonnet.com. 9 Apryle 2002. Retrieved 22 Mairch 2010.
  29. "Summary of indictments against Al-Qaeda terrorists in Samaria". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 21 Mairch 2006. Retrieved 4 Mey 2011.
  30. Diplomatic Bluebook (2002). "B. Terrorist Attacks in the United States and the Fight Against Terrorism" (PDF). Retrieved 11 Juin 2007.
  31. Korean Foreign Ministry (14 August 2007). "Seoul confirms release of two Korean hostages in Afghanistan". Archived frae the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 16 September 2007.
  32. General Intelligence and Security Service. "Annual Report 2004" (PDF). Retrieved 11 Juin 2007.
  33. NATO. "Press Conference with NATO Secretary General, Lord Robertson". Retrieved 23 October 2006.
  34. NATO Library (2005). "AL QAEDA" (PDF). Retrieved 11 Juin 2007.
  35. "Russia Outlaws 17 Terror Groups; Hamas, Hezbollah Not Included". Archived frae the original on 14 November 2006.
  36. Ministry for Foreign Affairs Sweden (March – June 2006). "Radical Islamist Movements in the Middle East" (PDF). Retrieved June 11, 2007. Check date values in: |date= (help)[deid airtin]
  37. "Report on counter-terrorism submitted by Switzerland to the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001)" (PDF). 20 December 2001. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 9 Juin 2007. Retrieved 11 Juin 2007.
  38. ""Türkiye'de halen faaliyetlerine devam eden başlıca terör örgütleri listesi" (Emniyet Genel Müdürlügü)". Egm.gov.tr. Retrieved 22 Mairch 2010.
  39. United Kingdom Home Office. "Proscribed terrorist groups". Retrieved 3 Julie 2006.
  40. United States Department of State. "Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)". Archived frae the original on 28 Juin 2006. Retrieved 3 Julie 2006.