|Dates o operation||11 August 1988 – present|
|Leader||Osama bin Laden (1988–2011)
Ayman al-Zawahiri (2011 – present)
Strict sharia law
Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, al-qāʿidah, Arabic: [ælˈqɑːʕɪdɐ], English: /ælˈkaɪdə/ al-KY-də, translation: "The Base" an alternatively spelled al-Qaida an sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a global broad-based militant Islamist terrorist organization foondit bi Osama bin Laden sometime atween August 1988 an late 1989. It operates as a netwirk comprisin baith a multinaitional, stateless airmy an a radical Sunni Muslim muivement cawin for global Jihad. It haes been designatit a terrorist organization bi the Unitit States, the Unitit Naitions Security Cooncil, the European Union, NATO, an various ither kintras (see belaw).
Al-Qaeda haes attackit ceevilian an militar targets in various kintras, such as the 11t September attacks, 1998 US embassy bombins an 2002 Bali bombins. The US govrenment respondit bi launchin the War on Terror. Al-Qaeda haes continued tae exist an grow through the decade frae 2001 tae 2011. Wi the loss o key leaders culminatin wi the daith o Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's operations hae devolvit frae top-doun controlled, tae franchise associatit groups, tae lane wouf operators. Wi the daith o key communicators, like Anwar al-Awlaki, the ability o al-Qaeda's "brand" tae inspire, motivate an instill fear haes shairply declined.
Characteristic techniques include suicide attacks an simultaneous bombins o different targets. Activities ascribit tae it mey involve members o the muivement, who hae taken a pledge o lealty tae Osama bin Laden, or the hintle mair numerous "al-Qaeda-linkit" individuals who hae unnergane trainin in ane o its camps in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq or Sudan, but no taken ony pledge.
Al-Qaeda ideologues enveesion a complete break frae aw foreign influences in Muslim kintras, an the creation o a new Islamic warld wide caliphate. Reportit beliefs include that a Christian-Jewish alliance is conspirin tae destroy Islam. Unner Salafist jihadism they believe that the killin o ceevilians is releegiously sanctioned, an they ignore holy text which forbids the murther o ceevilians an an aw internecine fechtin.
Al-Qaeda is responsible for instigatin sectarian violence amang Muslims an aw. Al-Qaeda is intolerant o nan-Sunni branches o Islam an denoonces them wi excommunications cried "takfir". Al-Qaeda leaders regard leeberal Muslims, Shias, Sufis, Ahmadiyyas an ither sects as heretics an hae issued attacks on their mosques an gatherins. Examples o sectarian attacks include the Yazidi community bombings, Sadr Ceety bombins, Ashoura Massacre an Aprile 2007 Baghdad bombins.
Designation as terrorist organization[eedit | eedit soorce]
Al-Qaeda haes been designatit a terrorist organization bi the follaein kintras an internaitional organizations:
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Atwan 2006, p. 40
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- Saudi Arabia, Wahhabism and the Spread of Sunni Theofascism retrieved 3 June 2012
- Moghadam, Assaf (2008). The Globalization of Martyrdom: Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks. Johns Hopkins University. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-8018-9055-0. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Moghadam" defined multiple times with different content
- Livesey, Bruce (January 25, 2005). "Special Reports – The Salafist Movement: Al Qaeda's New Front". PBS Frontline. WGBH educational foundation. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
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- Gunaratna 2002, pp. 95–96. "Al-Qaeda's global network, as we know it today, was created while it was based in Khartoum, from December 1991 till May 1996. To coordinate its overt and covert operations as Al-Qaeda's ambitions and resources increased, it developed a decentralized, regional structure. [...] As a global multinational, Al-Qaeda makes its constituent nationalities and ethnic groups, of which there are several dozen, responsible for a particular geographic region. Although its modus operandi is cellular, familial relationships play a key role."
- "How al Qaeda works: What the organization's subsidiaries say about its strength", by Leah Farrall, Foreign Affairs, March/April 2011
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- Fu'ad Husayn `Al-Zarqawi, "The Second Generation of al-Qa’ida, Part Fourteen," Al-Quds al-Arabi, July 13, 2005
- Ranstorp, Magnus (2009). Unconventional Weapons and International Terrorism. Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 978-0415484398.
- Dragons and Tigers: A Geography of South, East, and Southeast Asia – (2011) – Barbara A. Weightman
- Security strategy and transatlantic relations (2006) Roland Dannreuther
- Jihad and Just War in the War on Terror (2011) Alia Brahimi
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- "Security Council Resolutions Related to the Work of the Committee Established Pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities". United Nations Security Council. Retrieved January 9, 2007.
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