Al-Qaeda

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al-Qaeda
القاعدة
Leader(s) Osama bin Laden (1988–2011)
Ayman al-Zawahiri (2011 – present)
Dates o operation 11 August 1988 – present
Active region(s) Warldwide
Ideology Sunni Islamism
Strict sharia law
Islamic fundamentalism[1]
Takfiri[2]
Pan-Islamism
Warldwide Caliphate[3][4][5][6][7]
Qutbism
Wahhabism[8]
Salafist Jihadism[9][10]
Status See belaw

Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة‎‎, al-qāʿidah, Arabic: [ælˈqɑːʕɪdɐ], Inglis: /ælˈkaɪdə/ al-KY-də, translation: "The Base" an alternatively spelled al-Qaida an sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a global broad-based militant Islamist terrorist[11] organization foondit bi Osama bin Laden sometime atween August 1988[12] an late 1989.[13] It operates as a netwirk comprisin baith a multinaitional, stateless airmy[14] an a radical Sunni Muslim muivement cawin for global Jihad. It haes been designatit a terrorist organization bi the Unitit States, the Unitit Naitions Security Cooncil, the European Union, NATO, an various ither kintras (see belaw).

Al-Qaeda haes attackit ceevilian an militar targets in various kintras, such as the 11t September attacks, 1998 US embassy bombins an 2002 Bali bombins. The US govrenment respondit bi launchin the War on Terror. Al-Qaeda haes continued tae exist an grow through the decade frae 2001 tae 2011.[15] Wi the loss o key leaders culminatin wi the daith o Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's operations hae devolvit frae top-doun controlled, tae franchise associatit groups, tae lane wouf operators. Wi the daith o key communicators, like Anwar al-Awlaki, the ability o al-Qaeda's "brand" tae inspire, motivate an instill fear haes shairply declined.[16]

Characteristic techniques include suicide attacks an simultaneous bombins o different targets.[17] Activities ascribit tae it mey involve members o the muivement, who hae taken a pledge o lealty tae Osama bin Laden, or the hintle mair numerous "al-Qaeda-linkit" individuals who hae unnergane trainin in ane o its camps in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq or Sudan, but no taken ony pledge.[18]

Al-Qaeda ideologues enveesion a complete break frae aw foreign influences in Muslim kintras, an the creation o a new Islamic warld wide caliphate. Reportit beliefs include that a Christian-Jewish alliance is conspirin tae destroy Islam.[19] Unner Salafist jihadism they believe that the killin o ceevilians is releegiously sanctioned, an they ignore holy text which forbids the murther o ceevilians an an aw internecine fechtin.[9][20]

Al-Qaeda is responsible for instigatin sectarian violence amang Muslims an aw.[21] Al-Qaeda is intolerant o nan-Sunni branches o Islam an denoonces them wi excommunications cried "takfir". Al-Qaeda leaders regard leeberal Muslims, Shias, Sufis, Ahmadiyyas an ither sects as heretics an hae issued attacks on their mosques an gatherins.[22] Examples o sectarian attacks include the Yazidi community bombings, Sadr Ceety bombins, Ashoura Massacre an Aprile 2007 Baghdad bombins.[23]

Designation as terrorist organization[eedit | eedit soorce]

Al-Qaeda haes been designatit a terrorist organization bi the follaein kintras an internaitional organizations:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Atwan 2006, p. 40
  2. http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RS21745.pdf
  3. "The Future of Terrorism: What al-Qaida Really Wants – SPIEGEL ONLINE – News – International". Der Spiegel. September 11, 2001. Retrieved October 18, 2011. 
  4. The Daily Telegraph. London https://archive.is/oW5v. Archived frae the oreeginal on 2012-07-20.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. "Jihadists Want Global Caliphate". ThePolitic.com. Julie 27, 2005. Retrieved October 18, 2011. 
  6. John Pike. "Al-Qaida". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved October 18, 2011. 
  7. Burke, Jason (Mairch 21, 2004). "What exactly does al-Qaeda want?". The Guardian. London. 
  8. Saudi Arabia, Wahhabism and the Spread of Sunni Theofascism retrieved 3 June 2012
  9. 9.0 9.1 Moghadam, Assaf (2008). The Globalization of Martyrdom: Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks. Johns Hopkins University. p. 48. ISBN 978-0801890550. 
  10. Livesey, Bruce (Januar 25, 2005). "Special Reports – The Salafist Movement: Al Qaeda's New Front". PBS Frontline. WGBH educational foundation. Retrieved October 18, 2011. 
  11. Wilkinson, Paul (2011). Terrorism Versus Democracy: The Liberal State Response. Routledge. p. 136. ISBN 978-0415587990. 
  12. Bergen 2006, p. 75.
  13. United States v. Usama bin Laden et al., S (7) 98 Cr. 1023, Testimony of Jamal Ahmed Mohamed al-Fadl (S.D.N.Y. February 6, 2001).
  14. Gunaratna 2002, pp. 95–96. "Al-Qaeda's global network, as we know it today, was created while it was based in Khartoum, from December 1991 till May 1996. To coordinate its overt and covert operations as Al-Qaeda's ambitions and resources increased, it developed a decentralized, regional structure. [...] As a global multinational, Al-Qaeda makes its constituent nationalities and ethnic groups, of which there are several dozen, responsible for a particular geographic region. Although its modus operandi is cellular, familial relationships play a key role."
    See also:
  15. "How al Qaeda works: What the organization's subsidiaries say about its strength", by Leah Farrall, Foreign Affairs, March/April 2011
  16. "The al-Qaeda Brand Died Last week". Forbes. September 6, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2011. 
  17. Wright 2006, pp. 107–108, 185, 270–271
  18. Wright 2006, p. 270.
  19. Fu'ad Husayn `Al-Zarqawi, "The Second Generation of al-Qa’ida, Part Fourteen," Al-Quds al-Arabi, July 13, 2005
  20. Ranstorp, Magnus (2009). Unconventional Weapons and International Terrorism. Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 978-0415484398. 
  21. Dragons and Tigers: A Geography of South, East, and Southeast Asia – (2011) – Barbara A. Weightman
  22. Security strategy and transatlantic relations (2006) Roland Dannreuther
  23. Jihad and Just War in the War on Terror (2011) Alia Brahimi
  24. Australian Government. "Listing of Terrorist Organisations". Retrieved Julie 3, 2006. 
  25. Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada. "Entities list". Retrieved Julie 3, 2006. 
  26. Commission of the European Communities (October 20, 2004). "Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament" (DOC). Retrieved Juin 11, 2007. 
  27. "La France face au terrorisme" (PDF) (in (French)). Secrétariat général de la défense nationale (France). Retrieved August 6, 2009. 
  28. "The Hindu : Centre bans Al-Qaeda". Hinduonnet.com. Aprile 9, 2002. Retrieved Mairch 22, 2010. 
  29. "Summary of indictments against Al-Qaeda terrorists in Samaria". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Mairch 21, 2006. Retrieved Mey 4, 2011. 
  30. Diplomatic Bluebook (2002). "B. Terrorist Attacks in the United States and the Fight Against Terrorism" (PDF). Retrieved Juin 11, 2007. 
  31. Korean Foreign Ministry (August 14, 2007). "Seoul confirms release of two Korean hostages in Afghanistan". Archived frae the oreeginal on December 15, 2007. Retrieved September 16, 2007. 
  32. General Intelligence and Security Service. "Annual Report 2004" (PDF). Retrieved Juin 11, 2007. 
  33. NATO. "Press Conference with NATO Secretary General, Lord Robertson". Retrieved October 23, 2006. 
  34. NATO Library (2005). "AL QAEDA" (PDF). Retrieved Juin 11, 2007. 
  35. "Russia Outlaws 17 Terror Groups; Hamas, Hezbollah Not Included". Archived frae the oreeginal on November 14, 2006. 
  36. Ministry for Foreign Affairs Sweden (March – June 2006). "Radical Islamist Movements in the Middle East" (PDF). Retrieved June 11, 2007.  Check date values in: |date= (help)[deid airtin]
  37. "Report on counter-terrorism submitted by Switzerland to the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001)" (PDF). December 20, 2001. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on Juin 9, 2007. Retrieved Juin 11, 2007. 
  38. ""Türkiye'de halen faaliyetlerine devam eden başlıca terör örgütleri listesi" (Emniyet Genel Müdürlügü)". Egm.gov.tr. Retrieved Mairch 22, 2010. 
  39. United Kingdom Home Office. "Proscribed terrorist groups". Retrieved Julie 3, 2006. 
  40. United States Department of State. "Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)". Archived frae the oreeginal on Juin 28, 2006. Retrieved Julie 3, 2006.