Template:Infobox thorium

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Thorium,  90Th
Smaw (3 cm) ampule wi a teenie (5 mm) square o metal in it
General properties
Appearancesillery, eften wi black tarnish
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart)232.0377(4)[1]
Thorium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Ce

Th

(Uqb)
actiniumthoriumprotactinium
Atomic nummer (Z)90
Groupgroup n/a
Periodperiod 7
Element category  actinide
Blockf-block
Electron confeeguration[Rn] 6d2 7s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP)solit
Meltin pynt2115 K ​(1842 °C, ​3348 °F)
Bylin pynt5061 K ​(4788 °C, ​8650 °F)
Density (near r.t.)11.7 g/cm3
Heat o fusion13.81 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation514 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.230 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2633 2907 3248 3683 4259 5055
Atomic properties
Oxidation states4, 3, 2, 1
(weakly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.3
Atomic radiusempirical: 179 pm
Covalent radius206±6 pm
Coloyr lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o Infobox thorium
Miscellanea
Creestal structurface-centred cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic creestal structur for thorium
Speed o soond thin rod2490 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion11.0 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity54.0 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity147 n Ω·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderinparamagnetic[2]
Young's modulus79 GPa
Shear modulus31 GPa
Bouk modulus54 GPa
Poisson ratio0.27
Mohs haurdness3.0
Vickers haurdness350 MPa
Brinell haurdness400 MPa
CAS Nummer7440-29-1
History
DiskiveryJöns Jakob Berzelius (1829)
Main isotopes o thorium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
228Th trace 1.9116 y α 224Ra
229Th trace 7340 y α 225Ra
230Th trace 75380 y α 226Ra
231Th trace 25.5 h β 231Pa
232Th 100% 1.405×1010 y α 228Ra
234Th trace 24.1 d β 234Pa
| references | in Wikidata

References

Thir references will appear in the airticle, but this list appears anerly on this page.
  1. Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. 
  2. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.