Abbasid Caliphate

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Abbasid Caliphate

الخلافة العباسية
750–1258
1261–1517
(unner the Mamluk Sultanate o Cairo)
Banner o Abbasids
The Black Banner o the Abbasids.[1]
Abbasid Caliphate at its greatest extent, c. 850.
Abbasid Caliphate at its greatest extent, c. 850.
CaipitalKufa
(750–762)
Baghdad
(762–796, 809–836, 892–1258)
Ar-Raqqah
(796–809)
Samarra
(836–892)
Cairo
(1261–1517)
Common leidsOffeecial leid:
Arabic
Regional leids:
Oghuz Turkic
Aramaic, Armenian, Berber, Coptic, Georgian, Greek, Kurdish, Persie, Prakrit
Releegion
Sunni Islam
GovrenmentCaliphate
Caliph 
• 750–754
As-Saffah (first)
• 1242–1258
Al-Musta'sim (last) (caliph in Baghdad)
• 1508–1517
al-Mutawakkil III(last) (caliph in cairo)
History 
• Established
750
• Disestablished
1517
CurrencyDinar (gowd coin)
Dirham (siller coin)
Fals (copper coin)
Precedit bi
Succeedit bi
Umayyad Caliphate
Mongol Empire
Fatimid Islamic Caliphate
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
Saffarid dynasty
The day pairt o

The Abbasid Caliphate (Arabic: الخلافة العباسيةal-Khilāfah al-‘Abbāsīyah) wis the third o the Islamic caliphates tae succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It wis foondit bi a dynasty descendit frae Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib (566–653 CE), frae that the dynasty taks its name.[2] Thay ruled as caliphs for maist o the caliphate frae thair caipital in Baghdad in modren-day Iraq, efter haein owerthrawn the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid Revolution o 750 CE (132 AH).

The Abbasid Caliphate first centred its govrenment in Kufa, modren-day Iraq, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur foondit the ceety o Baghdad, near the auncient Sasanian caipital ceety o Ctesiphon. The Abbasid period wis merkit bi reliance on Persie bureaucrats (notably the Barmakid faimily) for govrenin the territories as weel as an increasin inclusion o non-Arab Muslims in the ummah (naitional commonty). Persianate customs war braidly adoptit bi the ruling elite, an thay begoud patronage o airtists an scholarts.[3] Baghdad becam a centre o science, cultur, filosofie an invention in whit becam kent as the Gowden Age o Islam.

Despite this ineetial cooperation, the Abbasids o the late 8t century haed alienated baith non-Arab mawali (clients)[4] an Iranian bureaucrats.[5] Thay war forced tae cede authority ower Al-Andalus an the Maghreb tae the Umayyads in 756, Morocco tae the Idrisid dynasty in 788, Ifriqiya tae the Aghlabids in 800 an Egyp tae the Isma'ili-Shia caliphate o the Fatimids in 969.

The poleetical pouer o the caliphs lairgely endit wi the rise o the Iranian Buyids an the Seljuq Turks, that ilk capturt Baghdad in 945 an 1055 respectively. Awtho Abbasid leadership ower the vast Islamic empire wis gradually reduced tae a ceremonial releegious function, the dynasty retained control ower its Mesopotamian domeen. The Abbasids' period o cultural frueetion endit in 1258 wi the sack o Baghdad bi the Mongols unner Hulagu Khan. The Abbasid line o rulers, an Muslim cultur in general, re-centred themsels in the Mamluk caipital o Cairo in 1261. Tho lackin in poleetical pouer, the dynasty conteena'd tae claim releegious authority till efter the Ottoman conquest o Egyp in 1517.[6]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Abbasid Revolution (750–751)[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Abbasid Revolution

The Abbasid caliphs war Arabs descendit frae Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, ane o the youngest uncles o Muhammad an o the same Banu Hashim clan. The Abbasids claimed tae be the true successors o Prophet Muhammad in replacin the Umayyad descendants o Banu Umayya bi virtue o thair closer bluidline tae Muhammad.

The Abbasids an aw distinguished themsels frae the Umayyads bi attackin thair moral chairacter an admeenistration in general. Accordin tae Ira Lapidus, "The Abbasid revolt wis supportit lairgely bi Arabs, mainly the aggrieved settlers o Merv wi the addeetion o the Yemeni faction an thair Mawali".[7] The Abbasids an aw appealed tae non-Arab Muslims, kent as mawali, that remeened ootside the kinship-based society o the Arabs an war perceived as a lawer cless within the Umayyad empire. Muhammad ibn 'Ali, a great-grandson o Abbas, begoud tae campaign in Persie for the return o pouer tae the faimily o Prophet Muhammad, the Hashimites, in the ring o Umar II.

In the ring o Marwan II, this opposeetion culminatit in the rebellion o Ibrahim the Imam, the fowert in strynd frae Abbas. Supportit bi the province o Khorasan (Eastren Persie), even tho the govrenor opponed them, an the Shia Arabs,[2][8] he achieved conseederable success, but wis capturt in the year 747 an dee'd, possibly assassinated, in preeson.

On 9 Juin 747 (15 Ramadan AH 129), Abu Muslim, risin frae Khorasan, successfully ineetiatit an appen revolt against Umayyad rule, that wis cairied oot unner the sign o the Black Staundart. Close tae 10,000 sodgers war unner Abu Muslim's command whan the hostilities offeecially begoud in Merv.[9] General Qahtaba follaed the fleein govrenor Nasr ibn Sayyar wast defeatin the Umayyads at the Battle o Gorgan, the Battle o Nahāvand an feenally in the Battle o Karbala, aw in the year 748.[8]

Folio frae Tarikhnama o Bal'ami depictin al-Saffah as he receives pledges o allegiance in Kufa

The quarry wis taken up bi Ibrahim's brither Abdallah, kent bi the name o Abu al-'Abbas as-Saffah, that defeatit the Umayyads in 750 in the battle near the Great Zab an wis subsequently proclaimed caliph.[10] Efter this loss, Marwan fled tae Egyp, whaur he wis subsequently assassinatit. The remainder o his family, baurin ane male, war an aw eliminatit.[8]

Immediately efter thair veectory, As-Saffah sent his forces tae Central Asie, whaur his forces fecht against Tang expansion in the Battle o Talas. The noble Iranian faimily Barmakids, that warinstrumental in biggin Baghdad, introduced the warld's first recordit paper mill in the ceety, sicweys beginnin a new era o intellectual rebirth in the Abbasid domain. As-Saffah focused on pittin doun numerous rebellions in Sirie an Mesopotamie. The Byzantines conducted raids in these early distractions.[8]

Pouer (752–775)[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety o Baghdad atween 767 an 912 AD. The roond plan reflects pre-Islamic Persian urban design.[11]

The first chynge the Abbasids, under Al-Mansur, made wis tae muive the empire's caipital frae Damascus, in Sirie, tae Baghdad in Iraq. This wis tae baith appease as weel tae be closer tae the Persie mawali support base that existit in this region mair influenced bi Persie history an cultur, an pairt o the Persie mawali demand for less Arab dominance in the empire. Baghdad wis established on the Tigris River in 762. A new poseetion, that of the vizier, wis an aw established tae delegate central authority, an even greater authority wis delegatit tae local emirs.[12]

This eventually meant that mony Abbasid caliphs war relegatit tae a mair ceremonial role than unner the Umayyads, as the viziers begoud tae exert greater influence, an the role o the auld Arab aristocracy wis slawly replaced bi a Persie bureaucracy.[12] In Al-Mansur's time control o Al-Andalus wis lost, an the Shia revoltit an war defeatit a year later at the Battle o Bakhamra.[8]

The Abbasids haed dependit hivily on the support o Persies[2] in thair owerthraw o the Umayyads. Abu al-'Abbas' successor, Al-Mansur welcomed nan-Arab Muslims tae his coort. While this helped integrate Arab an Persie culturs, it alienatit mony o thair Arab supporters, pairteecularly the Khorasanian Arabs that had supportit them in thair battles against the Umayyads.

Thir fissurs in thair support led tae immediate problems. The Umayyads, while oot o pouer, war nae destroyed. The anerly survivin member o the Umayyad ryal faumily, that haed been aw but annihilatit, ultimately made his way tae Spain whaur he established himsel as an independent Emir (Abd ar-Rahman I, 756). In 929, Abd ar-Rahman III assumed the teetle o Caliph, establishin Al Andalus frae Córdoba as a rival tae Baghdad as the legitimate caipital o the Islamic Empire.

In 756, the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mansur sent ower 4,000 Arab mercenaries tae assist the Cheenese Tang dynasty in the An Shi Rebellion against An Lushan. The Abbasides or "Black Banners," as thay war commonly cried, war kent in Tang dynasty chronicles as the hēiyī Dàshí, "The Black-robed Tazi", (黑衣大食) ("Tazi" bein a borraein frae Persian Tāzī, the wird for "Arab").[nb 1][14][15][16][17][18] After the war, these embassies remained in China [19][20][21][22][23] wi Caliph Harun al-Rashid establishin an alliance wi Cheenae.[24] Several embassies frae the Abbasid Caliphs tae the Cheenese coort hae been recordit in the T'ang Annals, the maist important o thir bein thae o Abul Abbas al-Saffah, the first Abbasid caliph, his successor Abu Jafar, an Harun al-Rashid.

Abbasid Gowden Age (775–861)[eedit | eedit soorce]

Harun al-Rashid receivin a delegation sent bi Charlemagne at his coort in Baghdad. Pentin bi German penter Julius Köckert [fr] (1827–1918), datit 1864. Ile on canvas.

The Abbasid leadership haed tae wirk haurd in the last hauf o the 8t century (750–800), unner several competent caliphs an thair viziers tae owercome the poleetical challenges creautit bi the faur flung naitur o the empire, an the leemitit communication athort it an usher in the admeenistrative chynges needit tae keep order.[25] It wus an aw in this early period o the dynasty, in pairteecular in the govrenance o al-Mansur, Harun al-Rashid, an al-Ma'mun, that the reputation an pouer o the dynasty wis creautit.[2]

Al-Mahdi restairtit the fechtin wi the Byzantines an his sons conteena'd the conflict till Empress Irene pushed for peace.[8] Efter several years o peace, Nikephoros I brak the treaty, then fendit aff multiple incursions in the first decade o the 9t century. Thir attacks pushed intae the Taurus Muntains culminatin wi a veectory at the Battle o Krasos an the massive invasion o 806, led bi Rashid himsel.[26]

Rashid's navy an aw pruived successfu as he teuk Cyprus. Eventually, the momentum turned an muckle o the laund gained wis lost. Rashid decidit tae focus on the rebellion o Rafi ibn al-Layth in Khorasan an dee'd while there.[26] While the Byzantine Empire wis fechtin Abbasid rule in Sirie an Anatolie, militar operations in this period war meenimal, as the caliphate focused on internal maiters, its govrenors exertin greater autonomy an uisin thair increasin pouer tae mak thair poseetions hereditary.[12]

At the same time, the Abbasids faced challenges closer tae hame. Harun al-Rashid turned on the Barmakids, a Persie faimily that haed grawn signeeficantly in pouer within the admeenistration o the state an killt maist o the faimily.[27] In the same period, several factions begoud aither tae leave the empire for ither launds or tae tak control o distant pairts o the empire awey frae the Abbasids. The ring o al-Rashid an his sons war conseedert tae be the apex o the Abbasids.[28]

Gowd dinar mintit in the ring o al-Amin (809–813)

Efter Rashid's death, the empire wis split bi a ceevil war atween the caliph al-Amin an his brither al-Ma'mun that had the support o Khorasan. This war endit wi a twa-year siege o Baghdad an the eventual daith o al-Amin in 813.[26] Al-Ma'mun ruled for 20 years o relative caum interspersed wi a rebellion supportit bi the Byzantines in Azerbaijan bi the Khurramites. Al-Ma'mun wis an aw responsible for the creaution o an autonomous Khorasan, an the conteena'd repulsin o Byzantine forays.[26]

Al-Mu'tasim gained pouer in 833 an his rule merkit the end o the strang caliphs. He strenthened his personal airmy wi Turkis mercenaries an promptly restairtit the war wi the Byzantines. His militar excursions war generally successfu culminatin wi a resoondin veectory in the Sack o Amorium. His attempt at seizin Constantinople failed whan his fleet wis destroyed bi a storm.[29] The Byzantines restairtit the fechtin bi sackin Damietta in Egyp. Al-Mutawakkil respondit bi sendin his truips intae Anatolie again, sackin an maraudin till thay war eventually annihilatit in 863.[30]

Fractur tae autonomous dynasties (861–945)[eedit | eedit soorce]

Map o the fragmentit Abbasid empire, wi auries still unner direct control o the Abbasid central govrenment (daurk green) an unner autonomous rulers (licht green) adherin tae nominal Abbasid suzerainty, c. 892

Even bi 820, the Samanids had begun the process o exercisin independent authority in Transoxiana an Greater Khorasan, as haed the Twaler-Shia Hamdanids in Northren Sirie, an the succeedin Tahirid an Saffarid dynasties o Iran. The Saffarids, frae Khorasan, nearly seized Baghdad in 876, an the Tulunids teuk control o maist o Sirie. The trend o waikenin o the central pouer an strenthenin o the minor caliphates on the periphery conteena'd.[28]

An exception wis the 10-year period o Al-Mu'tadid's rule. He brocht pairts o Egyp, Sirie, an Khorasan back intae the Abbasid's control. Especially efter the "Anarchy at Samarra", the Abbasid central govrenment wis waikened an centrifugal tendencies becam mair prominent in the Caliphate's provinces. Bi the early 10t century, the Abbasids awmaist laist control o Iraq tae various amirs, an the caliph al-Radi wis forced tae acknawledge thair pouer bi creautin the position o "Prince o Princes" (amir al-umara).[28]

Al-Mustakfi haed a short ring frae 944–946, an it wis in this period that the Persie faction kent as the Buyids frae Daylam swept intae pouer an assumed control ower the bureaucracy in Baghdad. Accordin tae the history o Miskawayh, thay begoud distributin iqtas (fiefs in the form o tax ferms) tae thair supporters. This period o localised secular control wis tae last nearly 100 years.[2] The loss o Abbasid pouer tae the Buyids wad shift as the Seljuks wad tak ower frae the Persies.[28]

At the end o the aicht century the Abbasids foond thay coud na langer keep a huge polity lairger nor that o Roum together frae Baghdad. In 793 the Zaydi-Shia dynasty o Idrisids set up a state frae Fez in Morocco, while a faimily o govrenors unner the Abbasids becam increasinly independent till thay foondit the Aghlabid Emirate frae the 830s. Al-Mu'tasim stairtit the dounwart slide bi utilisin non-Muslim mercenaries in his personal airmy. An aw in this period officers stairtit assassinatin superiors wi that thay fawed oot wi, in pairteecular the caliphs.[2]

Bi the 870s Egyp becam autonomous unner Ahmad ibn Tulun. In the East as weel, govrenors decreased thair ties tae the centre. The Saffarids o Herat an the Samanids o Bukhara haed braken awey frae the 870s, cultivatin a muckle mair Persianate cultur an statecraft. Bi this time anerly the central launds o Mesopotamie war unner direct Abbasid control, wi Palestine an the Hijaz eften managed bi the Tulunids. Byzantium, for its part, haed begun tae push Arab Muslims faur east in Anatolie.

Bi the 920s, the situation haed chynged faur, as North Africae wis lost tae the Abbasids. A Shia sect anerly recognisin the first five Imams an tracin its ruits tae Muhammad's dochter Fatima teuk control o Idrisid an then Aghlabid domeens.[28] Cried the Fatimid dynasty, thay had advanced tae Egyp in 969, establishin thair caipital near Fustat in Cairo, that thay biggit as a bastion o Shia learin an politics. Bi 1000 thay haed acome the chief poleetical an ideological challenge tae Sunni Islam in the form o the Abbasids. Bi this time the latter state had fragmentit intae several govrenorships that, while recognisin caliphal authority frae Baghdad, did maistly as thay wantit, fechtin wi ilk ither. The Caliph himsel wis unner 'pertection' o the Buyid Emirs that possessed aw o Iraq an wastren Iran, an war quietly Shia in thair sympathies.

Ootside Iraq, aw the autonomous provinces slawly teuk on the chairactereestic o de facto states wi hereditary rulers, airmies, an revenues an operatit unner anerly nominal caliph suzerainty, that mey nae necessarily be reflectit bi ony contreibution tae the thesaury, sic as the Soomro Emirs that haed gained control o Sindh an ruled the entire province frae thair caipital o Mansura.[25] Mahmud o Ghazni teuk the teetle o sultan, as opponed tae the "amir" that haed been in mair common uissage, seegnifeein the Ghaznavid Empire's unthirldom frae caliphal authority, despite Mahmud's ostentatious displays o Sunni orthodoxy an reetual submission tae the caliph. In the 11t century, the loss o respect for the caliphs conteena'd, as some Islamic rulers na langer mentioned the caliph's name in the Fryday khutba, or struck it aff thair coinage.[25]

The Isma'ili Fatimid dynasty o Cairo contestit the Abbasids for even the teetular authority o the Islamic ummah. Thay commandit some support in the Shia sections o Baghdad (sic as Karkh), awtho Baghdad wis the ceety maist closely connectit tae the caliphate, even in the Buyid an Seljuq eras. The Fatimids' green banners contrastit wi Abbasids' black, an the challenge o the Fatimids anerly endit wi thair dounfaw in the 12t century.

Buyid an Seljuq control (945–1118)[eedit | eedit soorce]

Despite the pouer o the Buyid amirs, the Abbasids reteened a heichly reetualised coort in Baghdad, as descrived bi the Buyid bureaucrat Hilal al-Sabi', an thay retained a certain influence ower Baghdad as weel as releegious life. As Buyid pouer waned efter the daith o Baha' al-Daula, the caliphate wis able tae regain some meisur o strenth. The caliph al-Qadir, for example, led the ideological struggle against the Shia wi writins sic as the Baghdad Manifesto. The caliphs kept order in Baghdad itsel, attemptin tae prevent the ootbreak o fitnas in the caipital, eften contendin wi the ayyarun'

Wi the Buyid dynasty on the dwyne, a vacuum wis creautit that wis eventually filled bi the dynasty o Oghuz Turks kent as the Seljuqs. Bi 1055, the Seljuqs haed wrestit control frae the Buyids an Abbasids, an teuk ony remeenin temporal pouer.[2] Whan the amir an umwhile sclave Basasiri teuk up the Shia Fatimid banner in Baghdad in, the caliph al-Qa'im wis unable tae defeat him withoot ootside help. Toghril Beg, the Seljuq sultan, restored Baghdad tae Sunni rule an teuk Iraq for his dynasty.

Ance again, the Abbasids war forced tae deal wi a military pouer that thay coud nae match, tho the Abbasid caliph remeened the teetular heid o the Islamic commonty. The succeedin sultans Alp Arslan an Malikshah, as weel as thair vizier Nizam al-Mulk, teuk up residence in Persie, but held pouer ower the Abbasids in Baghdad. Whan the dynasty begoud tae waiken in the 12t century, the Abbasids gained greater unthirldom ance again.

Revival o militar strenth (1118–1258)[eedit | eedit soorce]

Coin o the Abbasids, Baghdad, 1244

While the Caliph al-Mustarshid wis the first caliph tae big an airmy capable o meetin a Seljuk airmy in battle, he wis nanetheless defeatit in 1135 an assassinatit. The Caliph al-Muqtafi wus the first Abbasid Caliph tae regain the full militar unthirldom o the Caliphate, wi the help o his vizier Ibn Hubayra. Efter nearly 250 years o subjection tae furrin dynasties, he successfully defendit Baghdad against the Seljuqs in the siege o Baghdad (1157), sicweys siccarin Iraq for the Abbasids. The ring o al-Nasir (d. 1225) brocht the caliphate back intae pouer ootthrou Iraq, based in lairge part on the Sufi futuwwa organisations that the caliph heidit.[28] Al-Mustansir biggit the Mustansiriya Schuil, in an attempt tae eclipse the Seljuq-era Nizamiyya biggit bi Nizam al-Mulk.

Mongol invasion (1206–1258)[eedit | eedit soorce]

Siege o Baghdad bi the Mongols led bi Hulagu Khan in 1258

In 1206, Genghis Khan established a pouerfu dynasty amang the Mongols o central Asie. In the 13t century, this Mongol Empire conquered maist o the Eurasie laund mass, includin baith Cheenae in the east an muckle o the auld Islamic caliphate (as weel as Kievan Rus') in the wast. Hulagu Khan's destruction o Baghdad in 1258 is tradeetionally seen as the approximate end o the Golden Age.[31] Mongols feared that a supernaitural disaster wad strick if the bluid o Al-Musta'sim, a direct descendant o Muhammad's uncle Al-‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib,[32] an the last ringin Abbasid caliph in Baghdad, wis spilled. The Shia o Persia statit that na sic calamity haed happened efter the daith o Husayn ibn Ali in the Battle o Kerbala; nivertheless, as a precaution an in accordance wi a Mongol taboo that forbade spillin ryal bluid, Hulagu haed Al-Musta'sim wrapped in a cairpet an trampled tae daith bi horse on 20 Februar 1258. The Caliph's immediate faimily wis an aw executit, wi the lone exceptions o his youngest son that wis sent tae Mongolie, an a dochter that becam a sclave in the harem o Hulagu.[33]

Abbasid Caliphate o Cairo (1261–1517)[eedit | eedit soorce]

In the 9t century, the Abbasids creautit an airmy leal anerly tae thair caliphate, componed o non-Arab oreegin fowk, kent as Mamluks.[34][35][36][37][38] This force, creautit in the ring o al-Ma'mun (813–33) an his brither an successor al-Mu'tasim (833–42), preventit the forder disintegration o the empire. The Mamluk airmy, tho eften viewed negatively, baith helped an hurt the caliphate. Early on, it providit the govrenment wi a stable force tae address domestic an furrin problems. Houiver, creaution o this furrin airmy an al-Mu'tasim's transfer o the caipital frae Baghdad tae Samarra creautit a diveesion atween the caliphate an the fowks thay claimed tae rule. In addeetion, the pouer o the Mamluks steadily grew till al-Radi (934–41) wis constrained tae haund ower maist o the ryal functions tae Muhammad ibn Ra'iq.[10]

Culture[eedit | eedit soorce]

Islamic Gowden Age[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Islamic Gowden Age
Manuscript frae the Abbasid era

The Abbasid historical period lastin tae the Mongol conquest o Baghdad in 1258 CE is conseedert the Islamic Gowden Age.[39] The Islamic Gowden Age wis inauguratit bi the middle o the 8t century bi the ascension o the Abbasid Caliphate an the transfer o the caipital frae Damascus tae Baghdad.[40] The Abbassids war influenced bi the Qur'anic injunctions an hadith sic as "the ink o a scholart is mair haly nor the bluid o a mairtyr" stressin the vailyie o knawledge. In this period the Muslim warld becam an intellectual centre for science, filosofie, medicine an eddication as [40] the Abbasids championed the cause o knawledge an established the Hoose o Wicedom in Baghdad; whaur baith Muslim an nan-Muslim scholarts socht tae translate an gaither aw the warld's knawledge intae Arabic.[40] Mony clessic warks o antiquity that wad itherwise hae been lost war translatit intae Arabic an Persie an later in turn translatit intae Turkis, Ebreu an Laitin.[40] In this period the Muslim warld wis a caudron o culturs that collectit, synthesized an signeeficantly advanced the knawledge gained frae the auncient Roman, Cheenese, Indie, Persie, Egyptian, North African, Greek an Byzantine ceevilisations.[40] "In virtually ivery field o endeavor—in astronomy, alchemy, mathematics, medicine, optics an so forth—the Caliphate's scientists war in the forefront o scienteefic advance."[41]

Science[eedit | eedit soorce]

The rings o Harun al-Rashid (786–809) an his successors fostered an age o great intellectual achievement. In lairge part, this wis the result o the schismatic forces that haed unnermined the Umayyad regime, that relied on the assertion o the superiority o Arab cultur as pairt o its claim tae legitimacy, an the Abbasids' welcomin o support frae nan-Arab Muslims. It is weel established that the Abbasid caliphs modeled thair admeenistration on that o the Sassanids.[42] Harun al-Rashid's son, Al-Ma'mun (that's mither wis Persie), is even quotit as sayin:

The Persies ruled for a thoosand years an did nae need us Arabs even for a day. We hae been rulin them for ane or twa centuries an canna dae withoot them for an oor.[43]

A nummer o medieval thinkers an scientists leevin unner Islamic rule played a role in transmittin Islamic science tae the Christian Wast. In addeetion, the period saw the rekivery o muckle o the Alexandrian mathematical, geometric an astronomical knawledge, sic as that o Euclid an Claudius Ptolemy. Thir rekivert mathematical methods war later enhanced an developit bi ither Islamic scholarts, notably bi Persie scientists Al-Biruni an Abu Nasr Mansur.

Christians (pairteecularly Nestorian Christians) contreibutit tae the Arab Islamic Ceevilisation in the Ummayads an the Abbasids bi translatin warks o Greek filosofers tae Syriac an efterwart tae Arabic.[46][47] Nestorians played a prominent role in the formation o Arab cultur,[48] wi the Jundishapur schuil bein prominent in the late Sassanid, Umayyad an early Abbasid periods.[49] Notably, aicht generations o the Nestorian Bukhtishu faimily served as preevat doctors tae caliphs an sultans atween the aicht an elevent centuries.[50][51]

Algebra wis signeeficantly developit bi Persie scientist Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī in this time in his laundmerk text, Kitab al-Jabr wa-l-Muqabala, frae that the term algebra is derived. He is sicweys conseedert tae be the faither o algebra bi some,[52] awtho the Greek mathematician Diophantus haes an aw been gien this teetle. The terms algorism an algorithm are derived frae the name o al-Khwarizmi, that wis an aw responsible for introducin the Arabic numerals an Hindu-Arabic numeral system ayont the Indie subcontinent.

Ibn al-Haytham, "the faither o Optics.[53]

Arab scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) developed an early scienteefic method in his Beuk o Optics (1021). The maist important development o the scienteefic method wis the uise o experiments tae distinguish atween competin scienteefic theories set within a generally empirical orientation, that begoud amang Muslim scientists. Ibn al-Haytham's empirical pruif o the intromission theory o licht (that is, that licht rays entered the een raither than bein emittit bi them) wis pairteecularly important. Alhazen wis signeeficant in the history o scienteefic method, pairteecularly in his approach tae experimentation,[54] and has been referred to as the "world’s first true scientist".[55]

Medicine in medieval Islam wis an aurie o science that advanced pairteecularly in the Abbasids' ring. In the 9t century, Baghdad conteened ower 800 doctors, an great diskiveries in the unnerstaundin o anatomy an diseases war made. The clinical distinction atween maisles and smawpox wis descrived in this time. Famous Persie scientist Ibn Sina (kent tae the Wast as Avicenna) produced treatises an warks that summarised the vast amoont o knawledge that scientists haed accumulatit, an wis verra influential throu his encyclopaedias, The Canon o Medicine an The Beuk o Healin. The wark o him an mony ithers directly influenced the resairch o European scientists in the Renaissance.

Muslim alchemists influenced medieval European alchemists, pairteecularly the writins attributit tae Jābir ibn Hayyān (Geber). A nummer o chemical processes sic as distillation techniques ear developed in the Muslim warld an then spreid tae Europe.

Leeteratur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Illustration frae Mair tales frae the Arabian nichts (1915)

The best kent feection frae the Islamic warld is The Beuk o Ane Thoosand an Ane Nichts, a collection o fantastical fowk tales, leegends an parables compiled primarily in the Abbassid era. The collection is recordit as haein oreeginatit frae an Arabic translation o a Sassanian era Persie prototeep, wi likely oreegins in Indie leeterar tradeetions. Stories frae Arabic, Persie, Mesopotamie, an Egyptian fowklair an leeteratur war later incorporatit. The epic is believed tae hae taken shape in the 10t century an reached its feenal form bi the 14t century; the nummer an teep o tales hae varied frae ane manuscript tae anither.[56] Aw Arabian fantasie tales war eften cried "Arabian Nichts" whan translatit intae Inglis, regairdless o whether thay appeared in The Beuk o Ane Thoosand an Ane Nichts.[56] This epic haes been influential in the Wast syne it wis translatit in the 18t century, first bi Antoine Galland.[57] Many imitations were written, especially in France.[58] Various chairacters frae this epic hae themsels acome cultural icons in Wastren cultur, sic as Aladdin, Sinbad an Ali Baba.

A famous example o Islamic poetry on romance wis Layla an Majnun, an oreeginally Arabic story that wis faur developed bi Iranian, Azerbaijani an ither poets in Persian, Azerbaijani, Turkis leids.[59] It is a tragic story of undying love much like the later Romeo and Juliet.[citation needit]

Arabic poetry reached its greatest hicht in the Abbasid era, especially afore the loss o central authority an the rise o the Persianate dynasties. Writers lik Abu Tammam an Abu Nuwas war closely connectit tae the caliphal coort in Baghdad in the early 9t century, while ithers such as al-Mutanabbi received thair patronage frae regional coorts.

Filosofie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ane o the common defineetions for "Islamic filosofie" is "the style o filosofie produced within the framewark o Islamic cultur."[60] Islamic filosofie, in this defineetion is naither necessarily concerned wi releegious issues, nor is exclusively produced bi Muslims.[60] Thair warks on Aristotle wis a key step in the transmission o learnin frae auncient Greeks tae the Islamic warld an the Wast. Thay eften correctit the filosofer, encouragin a lively debate in the speerit o ijtihad.

Three speculative thinkers, al-Kindi, al-Farabi, an Avicenna, combined Aristotelianism an Neoplatonism wi ither ideas introduced throu Islam, an Avicennism wis later established as a result. Ither influential Abbasid filosofers include al-Jahiz, an Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen).

Airchitectur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Zumurrud Khatun Tomb (1200 CE), in seemetry at Baghdad

As the pouer shiftit frae the Umayyads tae the Abbasids, the airchitectur styles chynged an aw. The Christian styles evolved intae a style based mair on the Sasanian Empire utilisin mud bricks an baked bricks wi cairved stucco.[61] Anither major development wis the creaution or vast enlairgement o ceeties as thay war turned intae the caipital o the empire. First, stairtin wi the creaution o Baghdad, stairtin in 762, that wis planned as a wawed ceety wi a mosque an pailace in the centre. The waws war tae hae fower gates tae exit the ceety. Al-Mansur, that wis responsible for the creaution o Baghdad, an aw planned the ceety o Raqqa, alang the Euphrates. Feenally, in 836, al-Mu'tasim muived the caipital tae a new steid that he creautit alang the Tigris, cried Samarra. This ceety saw 60 years o wark, wi race-coorses an gemme preserves tae add tae the atmosphere.[61] Due tae the dry remote naitur o the environment, some o the pailaces biggit in this era war isolatit havens. Al-Ukhaidir Fortress is a fine ensaumple o this teep o biggin that haes stables, leevin quarters, an a mosque, aw surroondin inner coortyairds.[61] Ither mosques o this era, sic as the Mosque o Ibn Tulun, in Cairo, an the Great Mosque o Kairouan in Tunisie while ultimately biggit in the Umayyad dynasty, it wis substantially renovatit in the 9t century. This renovation wis sae extensive as tae ostensibly be a rebig, wis in the faurest reaches o the Muslim warld, in an aurie that the Aghlabids controlled; houiver the styles utilized war mainly o the Abbasids.[62] Mesopotamie anerly haes ane survivin mausoleum frae this era, in Samarra. This octagonal dome is the feenal restin place o al-Muntasir.[63] Ither airchitectural innovations an styles war few, sic as the fower-centred arch, an a dome erectit on squinches. Unfortunately, muckle wis lost due tae the ephemeral naitur o the stucco an luster tiles.[63]

Technology[eedit | eedit soorce]

Illustration shawin a watter clock gien tae Charlemagne bi Harun al-Rashid

In technology, the Abbasids adoptit papermakkin frae Cheenae.[64] The uise o paper spreid frae Cheenae intae the caliphate in the 8t century CE, arrivin in al-Andalus (Islamic Spain) an then the rest o Europe in the 10t century. It wis easier tae manufactur nor pairchment, less likely tae crack nor papyrus, an coud resorb ink, makkin it ideal for makkin records an makkin copies o the Koran. "Islamic paper makkers devised assemmly-line methods o haund-copyin manuscripts tae turn oot edeetions faur lairger nor ony available in Europe for centuries."[65] It wis frae the Abbasids that the rest o the warld learned tae mak paper frae linen.[66] The knawledge o gunpouder wis an aw transmitted frae Cheenae via the caliphate, whaur the formulas for pure potassium nitrate an an explosive gunpouder effect war first developed.[67]

Advances war made in irrigation an fermin, uisin new technology sic as the windmill. Craps such as awmonds an citrus fruit war brocht tae Europe throu al-Andalus, an succar cultivation wis gradually adoptit bi the Europeans. Apairt frae the Nile, Tigris an Euphrates, navigable rivers war uncommon, sae transport bi sea wis verra important. Navigational sciences war heichly developed, makkin uise o a rudimentary sextant (kent as a kamal). Whan combined wi detailed maps o the period, sailors war able tae sail athort oceans raither nor skirt alang the coast. Abbasid sailors war an aw responsible for reintroducin lairge three mastit merchant veshels tae the Mediterranean. The name caravel mey derive frae an earlier Arab ship kent as the qārib.[68] Arab merchants dominatit tred in the Indie Ocean till the arrival o the Portuguese in the 16t century. Hormuz wis an important centre for this tred. Thare wis an aw a dense netwark o tred routes in the Mediterranean, alang that Muslim kintras treddit wi ilk ither an wi European pouers sic as Venice or Genoa. The Silk Road crossin Central Asie passed throu Abbasid caliphate atween Cheenae an Europe.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Wade states "Tazi in Persie soorces referred tae a fowk in that laund, but wis later extendit tae kiver Arab launds. The Persie term wis adoptit bi Tang China (Dàshí :大食) tae refer tae the Arabs till the 12t century."[13]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Akhtar, Muhammad Wajid. "Ten Things You Didn't Know About The Kaaba". MuslimMatters.org. Muslim Matters. Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Hoiberg 2010, p. 10.
  3. Canfield, Robert L. (2002). Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780521522915. 
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  5. Finer, S. E. (1999-01-01). The History of Government from the Earliest Times: Volume II: The Intermediate Ages p.720. OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780198207900. 
  6. Holt 1984.
  7. Lapidus 2002, p. 54.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Dupuy & Dupuy 1986, p. 233.
  9. Lewis 1995, p. 102.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Abbasids". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 10. 
  11. "Archived copy". Archived frae the oreeginal on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2018. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Anon 2008
  13. Wade 2012, p. 138
  14. Jenkins 1999, p. 61
  15. Carné 1872, p. 295
  16. Ghosh 1961, p. 60
  17. Hermann 1912, p. 77
  18. Anon 1928, p. 1617
  19. Chapuis 1995, p. 92
  20. Kitagawa 1989, p. 283
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  24. Bloodworth & Bloodworth 2004, p. 214
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Brauer 1995
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 Dupuy & Dupuy 1986, p. 265
  27. Meisami 1999
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 Magnusson & Goring 1990, p. 2
  29. Dupuy & dupuy 1986, pp. 265–266
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  55. Al-Khalili 2009
  56. 56.0 56.1 Grant & Clute 1999, p. 51.
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  59. Clinton 2000, pp. 15–16
  60. 60.0 60.1 Leaman 1998
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  63. 63.0 63.1 Wilber 1969, p. 6
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  66. Dunn 2003, p. 166
  67. al-Hassan 2002
  68. Schwarz 2013

Bibliografie[eedit | eedit soorce]