|Naitional motto: "الله، الوطن، الملك"
"Allāh, al Waṭan, al Malik" (transliteration)
"Yakuc - Tamurt - Agellid"
God - Homeland - King
Location o Morocco
|Offeecial leid||Arabic, Berber|
Heid o State -
Prime Meenister -
Keeng Mohammed VI
Abbas El Fassi
274,460 sq mi
|Foondin||2 Mairch 1956|
|Siller||Moroccan dirham (MAD)|
|Naitional anthem||"Hymne Chérifien"|
Morocco (Arabic: المغرب, al-Maġrib; Berber: Amerruk / Murakuc; French: Maroc), offeecially the Kinrick o Morocco (المملكة المغربية, al-Mamlakah al-Maġribiyya), is a kintra locatit in North Africae. It haes a population o nearly 32 million an an aurie o 710,850 km², includin the disputit Wastren Sahara which is mainly unner Moroccan administration. Morocco haes a coast on the Atlantic Ocean that reaches past the Strait o Gibraltar intae the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered bi Spain tae the north (a water border through the Strait an land borders wi three small Spainyie-controlled exclaves, Ceuta, Melilla, an Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera), Algerie tae the east, ane Mauritanie tae the sooth.
Morocco is a de jure constitutional monarchy wi an electit parliament. The Keeng o Morocco holds vast executive pouers, includin dissolvin parliament at will. Executive pouer is exercised bi the govrenment an bi the keeng as well. Legislative pouer is vestit in baith the govrenment an the twa chambers o parliament, the Assembly o Representatives an the Assembly o Councillors. The keeng can an aa issue decrees cawed dahirs which hae the force o law. Parliamentary elections wur held in Morocco on 7 September 2007, an wur considered bi some neutral observers tae be maistly free an fair; although voter turnout wis estimatit tae be 37%, the lawest in decades. The politeecal caipital is Rabat, an the lairgest ceety is Casablanca; other lairge ceeties include Zagora, Marrakech, Fes, Salé, Agadir, Tangier, Meknes, Oujda an Tetouan.
Morocco haes a rich cultur an civilization, which remained mainly indigenous throughoot times an the Moroccan cuisine haes lang been considered as ane o the maist diversified cuisines in the warld. The population is almaist entirely Arab-Berber. Although Arabic is the majority leid, modern studies show that the Arabization process in Morocco wis maistly linguistic. The Moroccans or Moroccan Arabs, ar a lairgely homogenous group speakin Moroccan Arabic, although regional variation does occur. The Berber fowk in Morocco can be dividit in three main groups wi different dialects: the Riffians, the Chleuh an the Central Atlas inhabitants.
History[eedit | eedit soorce]
Umayyad Arabs conquered the region in the 7t century, bringin their leid, their seestem o government, an Islam, tae which mony o the Berbers slowly convertit, maistly efter the Arab rule recedit. In the Islamic era the first Moroccan Muslim state, independent frae the Arab Empire, wis The Kinrick o Nekor, an emirate in the Rif aurie. It wis foondit bi an immigrant frae Yemen, Salih I ibn Mansur in 710 AD, as a client state tae Caliphal grant. Idris I fled tae Morocco frae the Abbasids' massacre against his tribe in Iraq an managed tae convince the Awraba Berber tribes tae break allegiance tae the distant Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad. He foondit the Idrisid Dynasty in 780 AD. Morocco became later a center o learning an a major pouer.
Frae the 20t century onwards, a series o pouerful Bakker dynasties arose. Unner the Almoravid dynasty an the Almohad dynasty, Morocco dominatit the Maghreb, Muslim Spain, an the wastren Mediterranean region. In the 13t century the Merinids gained pouer ower Morocco an strove tae replicate the successes o the Almohads. In the 15t century the Reconquista endit Islamic rule in Iberie an mony Muslims an Jews fled tae Morocco. Unner the Saadi Dynasty, the first Moroccan dynasty initiatit bi ethnic Arabs synee the Idrisids, the kintra wad consolidate pouer an fecht aff Portuguese an Ottoman invaders, as in the battle o Ksar el Kebir. The reign o Ahmad al-Mansur brought new wealth an prestige tae the Sultanate, an a massive Moroccan invasion o the Songhay Empire wis initiatit.
Housomeivver, managin the territories athort the Sahara proved too difficult. After the daith o al-Mansur the kintra wis dividit amang his sons. In 1666 the sultanate wis reunitit bi the Alaouite dynasty, who hae syne been the rulin hoose in Morocco. The organization o the state developed wi Ismail Ibn Sharif. Wi his Black Guard he drove the Breetish frae Tangier (1684) an the Spainyie frae Larache (1689). In 1912, efter the First Moroccan Crisis an the Agadir Crisis, the Treaty o Fez wis signed, effectively dividin Morocco intae a French an Spainyie protectorate. In 1956, efter 44 years o occupation, Morocco regained unthirldom frae Fraunce an Spain as the "Kinrick o Morocco".
Population o Morocco[eedit | eedit soorce]
The aurie o present day Morocco haes been inhabitit syne Neolithic times (at least since 2000 BC, as attestit bi signs o the Capsian cultur), a period when the Maghreb wis less arid than it is today. In Mesolithic ages the geography o Morocco resembled a savanna mair than the present day arid landscape. In the classical period, Morocco wis kent as Mauretanie, although this shoud not be ramfeeselt wi the modren-day kintra o Mauritanie. Modren DNA analysis (see link) haes confirmed that various populations hae contributit tae the present-day gene pool o Morocco in addition tae the main modern group which is the Amazighs/Berbers. Those ither various populations are Arabs, Iberians, Phoenicians, Sephardic Jews an sub-Saharan Africans.
A small Jewish community lived in Morocco afore the creation o Israel, numberin approximately 265,000 in 1948, although atween 7,000 an 12,000 live there nou (maistly in few major ceeties). A caw made bi late keeng Hassan II for Jews tae return tae Morocco wis no answered.
Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco - Conventional short form: Morocco - Local lang form: al-Mamlakah al-Maġribiyya - Local cutty form: al-Maġrib - CIA World Factbook
- Pending resolution o the Wastren Sahara conflict.
- "Morocco's Cuture". Retrieved September 16, 2010.
- "Bocchus I". Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- D. Rubella, Environmentalism and Pi Paleolithic economies in the Maghreb (ca. 20,000 to 5000 B.P.), in, J.D. Clark & S.A. Brandt (eds.), From Hunters to Farmers: The Causes and Consequences of Food Production in Africa, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 41-56
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