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The 31st o Januar is the 31st day o the year in the Gregorian Calendar, wi 334 days ti come (335 in lowp years).
- 1504 - Fraunce cedes Naples tae Aragon.
- 1606 - The Gunpouder Plot conspirators are executit.
- 1846 - The ceety o Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is formed.
- 1865 - American Ceevil War: Confederate General Robert E. Lee becomes General-in-Chief.
- 1906 - A major yirdquauk in Colombie an Ecuador kills 1,000 fowk.
- 1918 - A series o accidental collisions in the Firth o Forth leads tae the loss of twa Ryal Navy submarines, wi the loss o ower 100 lives.
- 1919 - The Battle o George Square in Glesga taks place in a fecht for shorter wirkin hours.
- 1953 - 133 fowk are kilt in the MV Princess Victoria disaster in the North Chainel atween Belfast an Stranrawer.
- 1953 - A major storm causes massive floodin in the Netherlands, Belgium and Ingland in the nicht tae 1 Februar.
- 1958 - The Unitit States launches the Explorer 1 satellite.
- 1961 - Project Mercury: NASA sends Ham the Chimp intae space.
- 1968 - Nauru gains unthirldom frae Australie.
- 1968 - Vietnam War: Viet Cong guerrillas attack the US Embassy in Saigon, Sooth Vietnam, as pairt o the Tet Offensive.
- 1971 - Apollo 14 launches tae the Muin.
- 1990 - Moscow's first McDonald's restaurant opens.
- 1996 - A splosive-filled truck rams intae the gates o the Central Bank o Sri Lanka in Colombo, killin at least 86 fowk.
- 1999 - Family Guy, creatit bi Seth MacFarlane, is first braidcast.
- 2000 - Inglis medicinar an serial killer Harold Shipman is conveectit.
- 2000 - Alaska Airlines Flicht 261 crashes off Californie, killin 88 fowk.
- 2001 - A Scots coort in the Netherlands finds Abdelbaset al-Megrahi guilty o the bombin o Pan Am Flicht 103 ower Lockerbie in 1988.
- 2002 - The Larsen B ice shelf breaks aff Antarcticae.
- 2004 - A fire at the Rosepark nursin hame in Uddingston, Sooth Lanrikshire, kills 14 residents.
- 2009 - An ile spillage igneetion in Molo, Kenyae, kills 113 fowk an injures aroond 200.
- 2010 - Andy Murray loses his first Australian Open tennis feenal, agin Roger Federer.
- 2013 - The Pemex touer explosion in Mexico Ceety kills at least 33 fowk.
- 2015 - Sergio Mattarella is chosen for the post o Preses o Italy.
- 2018 - A lunar eclipse coincides wi a Blue Muin (twa full muins in a month) for the first time in the 3rd millennium; the event is referred tae as a "Super Blue Blood Muin".
- 2020 - COVID-19 pandemic: The Unitit Kinrick, Italy, Roushie, Spain an Swaden each confirm thair first-recordit cases o COVID-19.
- 2020 - Brexit: The Unitit Kinrick offeecially leaves the European Union at 11pm (UK Time), stairtin an 11-month transeetion period; it is the first unthirlt member state tae leave the bloc.
- 1543 - Tokugawa Ieyasu, Japanese shogun (d. 1616)
- 1762 - Lachlan Macquarie, Scots Govrenor o New Sooth Wales (d. 1824)
- 1797 - Franz Schubert, Austrick componer (d. 1828)
- 1814 - Andrew Ramsay, Scots geologist (d. 1891)
- 1835 - Lunalilo, Keeng o Hawaii (d. 1874)
- 1868 - Theodore William Richards, American pheesical chemist (d. 1928)
- 1884 - Theodor Heuss, 1st Preses o Wast Germany (d. 1963)
- 1881 - Irving Langmuir, American chemist (d. 1957)
- 1902 - Alva Myrdal, Swadish sociologist an politeecian (d. 1986)
- 1919 - Jackie Robinson, American basebaw player (d. 1972)
- 1921 - Carol Channing, American actress (d. 2019)
- 1923 - Norman Mailer, American novelist (d. 2007)
- 1925 - Paddy Buckley, Scots fitbawer (d. 2008)
- 1929 - Jean Simmons, Inglis-American actress (d. 2010)
- 1929 - Rudolf Mössbauer, German pheesicist (d. 2011)
- 1931 - Ernie Banks, American basebaw player an coach (d. 2015)
- 1934 - Eva Mozes Kor, Romanie-born survivor o the Holocaust (d. 2019)
- 1935 - Kenzaburō Ōe, Japanese writer
- 1937 - Suzanne Pleshette, American actress (d. 2008)
- 1938 - Princess Beatrix o the Netherlands
- 1945 - Brenda Hale, Baroness Hale o Richmond, Inglis juidge
- 1956 - Artur Mas, Catalan politeecian
- 1968 - John Collins, Scots fitbawer
- 1970 - Minnie Driver, Inglis actress
- 1973 - Portia de Rossi, Australian actress
- 1977 - Kerry Washington, American actress
- 1979 - Daniel Tammet, Inglis novelist, poet an translator
- 1981 - Justin Timberlake, American sangster an actor
- 1982 - Allan McGregor, Scots fitbawer
- 1982 - Elena Paparizou, Greek sangster
- 1985 - Christophe Berra, Scots fitbawer
- 1606 - Guy Fawkes, Inglis conspirator, executit (b. 1570)
- 1729 - Jacob Roggeveen, Dutch splorer (b. 1659)
- 1788 - Charles Edward Stuart, Jacobite pretender (b. 1720)
- 1865 - Hugh Falconer, Scots geologist, botanist an palaeontologist (b. 1808)
- 1900 - John Douglas, 9t Marquess o Queensberry, Scots nobleman (b. 1844)
- 1933 - John Galsworthy, Inglis novelist an playwricht (b. 1867)
- 1953 - David Broadfoot, Scots seaman (b. 1899)
- 1955 - John Mott, American activist (b. 1865)
- 1956 - A. A. Milne, Inglis writer (b. 1882)
- 1982 - Peter Ritchie Calder, Scots author, jurnalist an academic (b. 1906)
- 2006 - Moira Shearer, Scots actress an dancer (b. 1926)
- 2011 - Stuart Hood, Scots novelist, translator an telly producer (b. 1915)
- 2015 - Richard von Weizsaecker, Preses o Germany (b. 1920)
- 2016 - Sir Terry Wogan, Erse-Breetish braidcaster (b. 1938)
- 2020 - Mary Higgins Clark, American writer (b. 1927)
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