Santo Domingo

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Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo de Guzmán
Coat of airms o Santo Domingo
Coat airms
Ciudad Primada de América
(First Ceety o Americae)
Santo Domingo is located in the Dominican Republic
Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic
Coordinates: 18°30′0″N 69°59′0″W / 18.50000°N 69.98333°W / 18.50000; -69.98333Coordinates: 18°30′0″N 69°59′0″W / 18.50000°N 69.98333°W / 18.50000; -69.98333
Kintra Dominican Republic
ProvinceNaitional Destrict
FoonderBartholomew Columbus
 • MayorRoberto Salcedo
 • Total104.44 km2 (40.32 sq mi)
 • Metro
1400.79 km2 (540.85 sq mi)
Elevation14 m (46 ft)
 • Total1,484,789
 • Density14216.6/km2 (36,821/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Metro
 • Gentilic
Postal Code(s)10100 to 10699 Distrito Nacional, 10700 tae 11999 Santo Domingo
WebsiteAyuntamiento del Distrito Nacional

Santo Domingo, kent offeecially as Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the caipital an lairgest ceety in the Dominican Republic. Its metropolitan population wis 2,084,852 in 2003, an estimatit at 2,253,437 in 2006. The ceety is locatit on the Caribbean Sea, at the mooth o the Ozama River. Foondit bi Bartholomew Columbus in 1496, it is the auldest continuously inhabitit European dounset in the Americae, an wis the first seat o Spaingie colonial rule in the New Warld. It lies athin the boondaries o the Distrito Nacional (D.N.; "Naitional District"), itsel bordered on three sides bi Santo Domingo Province.

Santo Domingo bore the name "Ciudad Trujillo", efter the kintra's dictator, frae 1930 tae 1961. The day, Santo Domingo is the Dominican Republic's major metropolis, an is the lairgest ceety in the Caribbean bi population.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Alcázar de Colón, in the historic centre o Santo Domingo's Zona Colonial

Afore the arrival o Christopher Columbus in 1492, the Taíno fowk populatit the island thay cawed Quisqueya (mither o aw lands) an Ayiti (land o heich muntains), which Columbus named Hispaniola. It includes the pairt nou occupied bi the Republic o Haiti. At the time, the island's territory consistit o five chiefdoms: Marién, Maguá, Maguana, Jaragua, an Higüey. Thir wur ruled respectively bi caciques (chiefs) Guacanagarix, Guarionex, Caonabo, Bohechío, an Cayacoa.

Datin tae 1496, when the Spaingie settled thare, an offeecially tae 5 August 1498, Santo Domingo is the auldest European ceety in Americae. Bartholomew Columbus foondit the dounset an named it La Nueva Isabela, efter an earlier dounset in the north named efter the Queen o Spain Isabel I. It wis later renamed "Santo Domingo", in honour o Saunt Dominic. Santo Domingo came tae be kent as the "Gateway tae the Caribbean".

Santo Domingo wis destroyed bi a hurricane in 1502, an the new Govrenor Nicolás de Ovando haed it rebuilt on a different steid nearbi.[3] The oreeginal layoot o the ceety an a lairge portion o its defensive wall can still be appreciatit the day throughoot the Colonial Zone, declared a Warld Heritage Site bi UNESCO in 1990. The Colonial Zone, bordered bi the Río Ozama, an aa haes an impressive collection o 16t century biggins, includin palatial hooses an majestic kirks that reflect the airchitectural style o the late medieval period.

The ceety's maist important colonial biggins include the Catedral Santa María La Menor, cawed La Catedral Primada de América, Americae's First Cathedral, which states its distinction; the Alcázar de Colón, Americae's first castle, ance the residence o Viceroy o the Indies Don Diego Colón, a son o Christopher Columbus; the Monasterio de San Francisco, the ruins o the first monastery in Americae; the Museo de las Casas Reales, the umwhile Palace o the Governor General an the Palace o Ryal Audiences; the Parque Colón (Columbus Pairk), a historic square; the Fortaleza Ozama, the auldest fortress in Americae; the Pantéon Nacional, a umwhile Jesuit edifice nou hostin the remains o various renowned members o the Dominican Order; an the Iglesia del Convento Dominico, the first convent in Americae.

Throughout its first century, Santo Domingo wis the launchin pad for mucjke o the exploration an conquest o the New Warld. The expeditions that led tae Hernando Cortes' conquest o Mexico an Balboa's sichtin o the Pacific Ocean aw stairtit frae Santo Domingo.

In 1586, Francis Drake captured the ceety, which he held for ransom.[4] Drake's invasion an pillagin o Hispaniola sae weakened Spainyie dominion ower the island that for mair nor 50 years aw but the caipital wis abandoned an left tae the mercy o the pirates. An expedeetion sent bi Oliver Cromwell in 1655 attacked the ceety o Santo Domingo, but wis defeatit, an athdrew an teuk Jamaica, instead.[5]

Frae 1795 tae 1822 the ceety chynged haunds several times alang wi the colony it heidit. It wis cedit tae Fraunce in 1795, captured bi rebellious Haitian slaves in 1801, recovered bi Fraunce in 1802, an recovered bi Spain in 1809. In 1821 Santo Domingo became the caipital o an independent naition, Haití Español. This wis twa month later conquered bi Haiti. The ceety an the colony lost muckle o thair Spaingie population as a result o thir events.[4][6][7]

Santo Domingo wis again the caipital o a free naition, when Dominicans gained thair unthirldom frae Haitian rule on Februar 27, 1844 led bi thair naitional hero Juan Pablo Duarte. The ceety wis a prize focht ower bi various poleetical factions ower the succeedin decades o instability. In addition, the kintra haed tae fecht multiple battles wi Haiti; the Battle o March 19, Battle o Mairch 30, Battle o Las Carreras, an Battle o Beler, are a few o the maist prominent encounters, mentioned in the naitional anthem an wi ceety streets named efter them.[8] In 1861 Spain returned tae the kintra, haein struck a bargain wi Dominican leader Pedro Santana wherebi the latter wis grantit several honorific titles an privileges, in exchynge for annexin the young naition back tae Spaingie rule. The Dominican Restoration War began in 1863 housomeivver, an in 1865 the kintra wis free again efter Spain athdrew.

Ower the next twa-thirds o a century Santo Domingo an the Dominican Republic went throu mony revolutions, pouer chynges, an occupation bi the Unitit States, 1916–24. The ceety wis struck bi hurricane San Zenón in 1930, which caused major damage. Efter its rebiggin, Santo Domingo wis kent offeecially as Ciudad Trujillo in honour o dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo, who governed frae 1930. Follaein his assassination in 1961 the ceety wis renamed back tae Santo Domingo. It wis the scene o street fechtin durin the 1965 Unitit States occupation o the Dominican Republic.

The year 1992 markt the 500t anniversary, El Quinto Centenario, o Christopher Columbus' Discovery o Americae. The Columbus Lichthoose – Faro a Colón – wi an approximate cost o 400 million Dominican pesos, wis erected in Santo Domingo in honour of this occasion.[9]

Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Santo Domingo haes three sister ceeties designatit bi Sister Ceeties Internaitional:[10]

Santo Domingo an a haes twinnin agreements wi the follaein sister ceeties:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Superficies a nivel de municipios, Oficina Nacional de Estadística Archived 2009-04-17 at the Wayback Machine
  2. De la Fuente, Santiago (1976). Geografía Dominicana (in Spanish). Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: Editora Colegial Quisqueyana.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  3. Meining 1986:9
  4. a b "Dominican Republic - THE FIRST COLONY". Library of Congress. Retrieved 18 Mairch 2009.
  5. Marley, David (1998). Wars of the Americas. ABC-CLIO. pp. 148–149. ISBN 0874368375. ISBN 9780874368376.
  6. "Elections and Events 1791-1849". University of California-San Diego. Retrieved 18 Mairch 2009.
  7. Mary Louise Pratt, Imperial Eyes, 2007, p. 70
  8. "City street map of Santo Domingo at" (PDF). Retrieved 20 Mairch 2009.
  9. "Secretaría de Estado de Cultura". Retrieved 18 Mairch 2009.
  10. a b c d Online Directory: Dominican Republic, Caribbean Archived 2008-09-17 at the Wayback Machine Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI)
  11. a b c d "Memoria Anual, Agosto 2002-Agosto 2003". Ayuntamiento del Distrito Nacional. pp. 66–67. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 23 Julie 2008.
  12. "Mapa Mundi de las ciudades hermanadas". Ayuntamiento de Madrid. Retrieved 23 Julie 2008.
  13. [1] Archived 2018-12-25 at the Wayback Machine
  14. La Guardia y Santo Domingo, dos ciudades hermanas (Spanish)