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The 31t o August is the 243t day o the year (244t in lowp years) in the Gregorian Calendar, wi 122 days bidin.
- 1314 - The caipital o Norawa is movit frae Bergen tae Oslo.
- 1422 - Henry V o Ingland dies in Fraunce. Henry VI o Ingland becomes King at the age o less nor 9 month.
- 1724 - King Louis I o Spain dies agit 17.
- 1803 - Meriwether Lewis an William Clark stairt their wastard expedeetion in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvanie.
- 1848 - Costa Rica declares unthirldom frae the Federal Republic o Central Americae.
- 1876 - Ottoman Sultan Murad V is deposed bi his brither, Abdul Hamid II.
- 1897 - Initiatit bi Theodor Herzl, the Zionist Warld Congress calls for a Jewish state.
- 1907 - The Unitit Kinrick, Roushie an Fraunce form a Triple Entente Alliance.
- 1939 - Nazi Germany carries oot a staged attack on the Gleiwitz Radio Station, a day afore invading Poland.
- 1956 - Indie's States Reorganisation Act, reorganisin state mairches pairtally alang linguistic lines, enters intae force.
- 1957 - The Federation o Malaya (nou Malaysie) gains unthirldom frae the Unitit Kinrick.
- 1962 - Trinidad an Tobago gains unthirldom frae the Unitit Kinrick.
- 1965 - A Super Guppy aircraft an rocket carrier maks its first flicht.
- 1968 - A yirdquauk in Iran kills 12,000 fowk.
- 1980 - Floods in Ibadan, Nigerie, kill ower 300 fowk.
- 1980 - The Solidarity Movement is foondit in Gdansk, Poland.
- 1986 - An Aeromexico Douglas DC-9 plane wi a Piper PA-28 ower Cerritos, Californie, killin 67 fowk in the air an 15 on the groond.
- 1986 - The Soviet Union passenger liner Admiral Nakhimov sinks in the Black Sea, efter collidin wi bulk carrier Pyotr Vasev, killin 398 fowk.
- 1987 - Thai Airways Flicht 365 crashes intae the sea near the isle o Phuket, killin 83 fowk.
- 1990 - The plan for German unity is signed in Berlin.
- 1991 - Kyrgyzstan gains unthirldom frae the Soviet Union.
- 1997 - Diana, Princess o Wales is kilt in a car crash in Paris, agit 36.
- 1999 - A LAPA Boeing 737-200 crashes durin tak-aff frae Jorge Newbury Airport in Buenos Aires, Argentinae, killin 65 fowk.
- 2005 - A stampede on the Al-Ayma Brig in Baghdad kills awmaist 1,200 fowk.
- 2006 - The Scream, bi Edvard Munch, is recoverit, efter bein stolen in 2004.
- 2016 - Preses o Brazil Dilma Rousseff is impeached an fully removit frae affice, bein replacit bi Michel Temer.
- 2018 - The funeral o American soul sangster Aretha Franklin taks place in Detroit, Michigan.
- 2020 - Leisure centres an sports facilities in Scotland reopen as pairt o the easin o COVID-19 restrictions.
- 2020 - COVID-19 pandemic: The Unitit States reaches 6 million recordit cases o COVID-19.
- 12 - Caligula, Roman Emperor (d. 41)
- 161 - Commodus, Roman Emperor (d. 192)
- 1569 - Jahangir, Mughal Emperor (d. 1627)
- 1647 - Mary Scott, 3rd Coontess o Buccleuch, Scots peer (d. 1661)
- 1786 - Michel Eugène Chevreul, French chemist (d. 1889)
- 1819 - John Faed, Scots penter (d. 1902)
- 1821 - Hermann von Helmholtz, German medicinar an pheesicist (d. 1894)
- 1834 - Amilcare Ponchielli, Italian componer (d. 1886)
- 1870 - Maria Montessori, Italian educator (d. 1952)
- 1879 - Yoshihito, Emperor o Japan (d. 1926)
- 1880 - Queen Wilhelmina o the Netherlands (d. 1962)
- 1897 - Fredric March, American actor (d. 1975)
- 1907 - Ramon Magsaysay, Preses o the Philippines (d. 1957)
- 1913 - Bernard Lovell, Inglis radio astronomer (d. 2012)
- 1928 - James Coburn, American actor (d. 2002)
- 1931 - Jean Béliveau, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2014)
- 1938 - Martin Bell, Inglis jurnalist an politeecian
- 1945 - Van Morrison, Northren Erse sangster
- 1949 - Richard Gere, American actor
- 1949 - Hugh David Politzer, American theoretical pheesicist
- 1954 - Robert Kocharyan, umwhile Preses o Armenie
- 1956 - Tsai Ing-wen, Preses o the Republic o Cheenae
- 1960 - Hassan Nasrallah, Lebanese Secretar-General o Hezbollah
- 1968 - Derek Whyte, Scots fitbawer
- 1970 - Debbie Gibson, American actress an sangster
- 1970 - Queen Rania o Jordan
- 1971 - Chris Tucker, American actor an comedian
- 1979 - Simon Neil, Scots sangster (Biffy Clyro)
- 1982 - Pepe Reina, Spaingie fitbawer
- 1985 - Mohammad bin Salman, Croun Prince o Saudi Arabie
- 1990 - Gary Mackay-Steven, Scots fitbawer
- 1994 - Alex Harris, Scots fitbawer
- 1422 - Henry V o Ingland (b. 1387)
- 1688 - John Bunyan, Inglis writer (b. 1628)
- 1724 - Louis I o Spain (b. 1707)
- 1867 - Charles Baudelaire, French poet (b. 1821)
- 1920 - Wilhelm Wundt, German psychologist (b. 1832)
- 1959 - Jimmy Paterson, Scots medicinar an fitbawer (b. 1891)
- 1963 - Georges Braque, French penter, poet an writer (b. 1882)
- 1969 - Rocky Marciano, American boxer (b. 1923)
- 1979 - Alexander Fraser, 20t Laird Saltoun, Scots peer (b. 1886)
- 1986 - Urho Kekkonen, Preses o Finland (b. 1900)
- 1986 - Henry Moore, Inglis sculptor (b. 1898)
- 1997 - Diana, Princess o Wales (b. 1961)
- 2005 - Joseph Rotblat, Pols-Breetish pheesicist (b. 1908)
- 2013 - Sir David Frost, Inglis braidcaster (b. 1939)
- 2020 - Pranab Mukherjee, Preses o Indie (b. 1935)
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