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The 31st o Julie is the 212t day o the year (213t in lowp years) in the Gregorian Calendar, wi 153 days ti come.
- 781 - The earliest-recordit eruption o Munt Fuji, Japan, taks place.
- 1492 - Jews are expelled frae Spain.
- 1658 - Aurangzeb becomes Moghul Emperor o Indie.
- 1667 - The Treaty o Breda is agreed: The Netherlands gives its colony o New Amsterdam (present-day New York) tae Ingland; In return, Ingland gives its colony o Suriname tae the Netherlands.
- 1856 - Christchurch, New Zealand, is chairtert as a ceety.
- 1913 - The Balkans sign an armistice in Bucharest.
- 1917 - Warld War I: The Seicont Battle o Flanders stairts, an lasts until November.
- 1919 - The German naitional assembly adopts the constitution o the Weimar Republic.
- 1944 - French writer an pilot Antoine de Saint-Exupéry disappears while on a reconnaissance flicht naur Corsica; he is presumed tae hae deed.
- 1945 - Pierre Laval, leader o Vichy Fraunce, surrenders tae Allied sodgers in Austrick.
- 1954 - First successful climb o K2 by an Italian team led by Ardito Desio.
- 1959 - Basque separatist organisation ETA is foondit.
- 1971 - Astronauts on the Apollo 15 Muin mission becomes the first fowk tae ride a lunar rover.
- 1992 - Georgie joins the Unitit Naitions.
- 1993 - King Baudouin o Belgium dees agit 62; his brither is installit as King Albert II o Belgium on 9 August.
- 2006 - For heal reasons, Fidel Castro hands ower his duties as Preses o Cuba tae his brither, Raúl Castro.
- 2007 - The Breetish airmy withdraws frae Northren Ireland.
- 2014 - A series o gas splosions in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, shortly afore midnicht, kills 32 fowk.
- 2015 - Beijing is gien the richt tae host the 2022 Winter Olympics.
- 2016 - The "richt tae buy" policy, introduced in the 1980s, is offeecially scrapped in Scotland.
- 2017 - Los Angeles agrees tae host the Simmer Olympic Gemmes in 2028, pavin the way for Paris tae host them in 2024.
- 2020 - COVID-19 pandemic: Vietnam reports its first twa daiths frae COVID-19.
- 2020 - COVID-19 pandemic: Local lockdoons are imposit in several urban auries o Northren Ingland in response tae a resurgence o COVID-19 cases there.
- 1527 – Maximilian II, Haly Roman Emperor (d. 1576)
- 1803 – John Ericsson, Swadish ingineer (d. 1889)
- 1884 – Alexander Heron, Scots geologist (d. 1971)
- 1898 – Doris Zinkeisen, Scots costume an theatre designer, penter an writer (d. 1991)
- 1912 – Milton Friedman, American economist (d. 2006)
- 1918 – Paul D. Boyer, American chemist (d. 2018)
- 1919 – Primo Levi, Italian chemist an writer (d. 1987)
- 1922 – Ewan Cameron, Scots medicinar (d. 1991)
- 1926 – Hilary Putnam, American philosopher (d. 2016)
- 1947 – Richard Griffiths, Breetish actor (d. 2013)
- 1951 – Evonne Goolagong Cawley, Australie tennis player
- 1951 – John Chillas, Scots gowfer
- 1956 – Michael Biehn, American actor
- 1959 – Andrew Marr, Scots braidcast jurnalist
- 1962 – Jackie Bird, Scots braidcast jurnalist
- 1962 – Wesley Snipes, American actor
- 1963 – Fatboy Slim, Inglis DJ an muisicker
- 1965 – J. K. Rowling, Breetish author (Harry Potter)
- 1967 – Derek Ferguson, Scots fitbawer
- 1969 – Antonio Conte, Italian fitbawer
- 1973 – Jacob Aagaard, Dens-Scots chess player
- 1976 – Paulo Wanchope, Costa Rican fitbawer
- 1979 – Carlos Marchena, Spaingie fitbawer
- 1986 – Sean Murdoch, Scots fitbawer
- 1987 – David Bogie, Scots rally driver
- 1989 – Victoria Azarenka, Belaroushie tennis player
- 1989 – Zelda Williams, American actress
- 1556 - Ignatius o Loyola, Spaingie priest an theologian (b. 1491)
- 1750 - King John V o Portugal (b. 1689)
- 1784 - Denis Diderot, French writer an philosopher (b. 1713)
- 1874 - Cosmo Innes, Scots advocate, juidge, historian an antiquary (b. 1798)
- 1875 - Andrew Johnson, 17t Preses o the Unitit States (b. 1808)
- 1886 - Franz Liszt, Hungarian componer (b. 1811)
- 1889 - Horatius Bonar, Scots kirkman an poet (b. 1808)
- 1914 - Jean Jaurès, French politeecian (b. 1859)
- 1926 - John McPherson, Scots fitbawer (b. 1868)
- 1944 - Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, French pilot and writer (b. 1900)
- 1993 - King Baudouin o Belgium (b. 1930)
- 2001 - Friedrich Franz, Hereditary Grand Duke o Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b. 1910)
- 2009 - Sir Bobby Robson, Inglis fitbawer an manager (b. 1933)
- 2012 - Gore Vidal, American writer (b. 1925)
- 2013 - Michael Ansara, American actor (b. 1922)
- 2017 - Jeanne Moreau, French actress (b. 1928)
- 2018 - Sir Alex Fergusson, Scots politeecian (b. 1949)
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