|Avocado fruit an foliage, Réunion island|
|Ripe avocado fruit an cross-section|
The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree native tae Central Mexico, classified in the flouering plant faimily Lauraceae alang wi cinnamon, camphor an bay laurel. Avocado or alligator pear also refers tae the fruit (botanically a lairge berry that contains a single seed) o the tree.
Avocados are commercially valuable an are cultivatit in tropical an Mediterranean climates throughoot the warld. Thay hae a green-skinned, fleshy body that mey be pear-shaped, egg-shaped, or spherical. Commercially, it ripens efter harvestin. Trees are partially self-pollinatin an eften are propagatit through graftin tae maintain a predictable quality an quantity o the fruit.
Cultivation[eedit | eedit soorce]
|Food and agriculture|
|Avocado fruit (cv. 'Fuerte'); left: whole, right: in section|
|Kintra||Quantity (Tm)||Warld Rank|
|United States of America||214,000||3|
The tree graws tae 20 m (66 ft), wi alternately arranged leaves 12 centimetres (4.7 in) – 25 centimetres (9.8 in) lang. The flouers are inconspicuous, greenish-yellae, 5 millimetres (0.2 in) – 10 millimetres (0.4 in) wide. The pear-shaped fruit is 7 centimetres (2.8 in) – 20 centimetres (7.9 in) lang, weighs atween 100 grams (3.5 oz) – 1,000 grams (35 oz), an haes a lairge central seed, 5 centimetres (2.0 in) – 6.4 centimetres (2.5 in) lang.
The subtropical species needs a climate withoot frost an wi little wind. Heich winds reduce the humidity, dehydrate the flouers, an affect pollination. When even a mild frost occurs, prematur fruit drop mey occur, although the Hass cultivar can tolerate temperatures down to −1°C. The trees also need well-aerated soils, ideally more than 1 m deep. Yield is reduced when the irrigation watter is highly saline. These soil an climate conditions are available only in a few auries o the warld, particularly in soothren Spain, Portugal, Morocco, Crete, the Levant, Sooth Africae, Colombie, Peru, pairts o central an northren Chile, Vietnam, Indonesia, pairts o soothren Indie, Sri Lanka, Australie, New Zealand, the Philippines, Malaysie, Central Americae, the Caribbean, Mexico, Californie, Arizona, Puerto Rico, New Mexico, Texas, Florida, Hawai'i, Ecuador an Rwanda. Each region haes different types o cultivars.
Culinary uses[eedit | eedit soorce]
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||670 kJ (160 kcal)|
|- Succars||0.66 g|
|- Dietary fiber||6.7 g|
|- saturatit||2.13 g|
|- monounsaturated||9.80 g|
|- polyunsaturated||1.82 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.||7 μg (1%)|
|- beta-carotene||62 μg (1%)|
|- lutein and zeaxanthin||271 μg|
|Thiamine (vit. B1)||0.067 mg (6%)|
|Riboflavin (vit. B2)||0.13 mg (11%)|
|Niacin (vit. B3)||1.738 mg (12%)|
|Pantothenic acid (B5)||1.389 mg (28%)|
|Vitamin B6||0.257 mg (20%)|
|Folate (vit. B9)||81 μg (20%)|
|Vitamin C||10 mg (12%)|
|Vitamin E||2.07 mg (14%)|
|Vitamin K||21 μg (20%)|
|Calcium||12 mg (1%)|
|Iron||0.55 mg (4%)|
|Magnesium||29 mg (8%)|
|Manganese||0.142 mg (7%)|
|Phosphorus||52 mg (7%)|
|Potassium||485 mg (10%)|
|Sodium||7 mg (0%)|
|Zinc||0.64 mg (7%)|
|Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
The fruit o horticultural cultivars haes a mercatly heicher fat content than maist ither fruit, maistly monounsaturatit fat, an as such serves as an important staple in the diet o various groups where access tae ither fatty fuids (heich-fat meats an fish, dairy products, etc.) is limitit.
A ripe avocado yields tae gentle pressur when held in the palm o the haund an squeezed. The flesh is prone tae enzymatic brounin; it turns broun quickly efter exposur tae air. Tae prevent this, lime or lemon juice can be addit tae avocados efter thay are peeled.
The fruit is nae sweet, but rich, an distinctly yet subtly flavored, an o smooth, almaist creamy texture. It is uised in baith savory an sweet dishes, though in mony kintras nae for baith. The avocado is very popular in vegetarian cuisine, as substitute for meats in sandwiches an salads acause o its heich fat content.
Generally, avocado is served raw, though some cultivars, includin the common Hass, can be cuiked for a short time withoot acomin bitter. Caution should be uised when cuikin wi untestit cultivars; the flesh o some avocados mey be rendered inedible bi heat. Prolonged cuikin induces this chemical reaction in aw cultivars.
In the Philippines, Brazil, Indonesie, Vietnam, an soothren Indie (especially the coastal Kerala an Karnataka region), avocados are frequently uised for milkshakes an occasionally addit tae ice cream an ither desserts. In Brazil, Vietnam, the Philippines an Indonesie, a dessert drink is made wi sugar, milk or watter, an pureed avocado. Chocolate syrup is sometimes addit. In Morocco, there is a similar chilled avocado an milk drink, that is sweetened wi confectioner's sugar an hintit wi orange flouer watter.
In Ethiopie, avocados are made intae juice bi mixin them wi succar an milk or watter, usually served wi Vimto an a slice o leemon. It is also very common tae serve layered multiple fruit juices in a glass (locally called spreece) made o avocados, mangoes, bananas, guavas an papayas. Avocados are also uised tae mak salads.
Avocados in savory dishes, eften seen as exotic, are a relative novelty in Portuguese-speakin kintras, such as Brazil, where the tradeetional preparation is mashed wi succar an lime, an eaten as a dessert or snack. This contrasts wi Spainyie-speakin kintras, such as Mexico or Argentinae, where the opposite is true an sweet preparations are eften unheard o.
In Australie an New Zealand, it is commonly served in sandwiches, sushi, on toast, or wi chicken. In Ghana, it is eften eaten alone in sliced bread as a sandwich. In Sri Lanka, well ripened flesh, thoroughly mashed wi succar an milk, or treacle (a syrup made frae the nectar o a particular palm flouer) wis ance a popular dessert. In Haiti it is eften consumed wi cassava or regular bread for breakfast.
In Mexico an Central Americae, avocados are served mixed wi white rice, in soups, salads, or on the side o chicken an meat. In Peru, thay are consumed wi tequeños as mayonnaise, served as a side dish wi parrillas, uised in salads an sandwiches, or as a whole dish when filled wi tuna, shrimp, or chicken. In Chile, it is uised as a puree wi chicken, hamburgers, an het dugs; an in slices for celery or lettuce salads. The Chilean version o Caesar salad contains lairge slices o matur avocado. In Kenyae an Nigerie, the avocado is eften eaten as a fruit, an is eaten alone, or mixed wi ether fruits in a fruit salad, or as pairt o a vegetable salad. In Iran, it is uised as a rejuvenatin facial cream.
Avocado slices are frequently addit tae hamburgers, tortas, het dugs, an carne asada. Avocado can be combined wi eggs (in scrambled eggs, tortillas or omelettes), an is a key ingredient in Californie rolls an ither makizushi ("maki", or rolled sushi).
In soothren Africae, Avocado Ritz is a common dish.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Chen, H.; Morrell, P. L.; Ashworth, V. E. T. M.; De La Cruz, M.; Clegg, M. T. (2008). "Tracing the Geographic Origins of Major Avocado Cultivars". Journal of Heredity 100 (1): 56–65. doi:10.1093/jhered/esn068. PMID 18779226.
- California Avocado Society 1973–74 Yearbook 57: 70–71, What kind of fruit is the avocado?
- FAO (2004) Major Producers of Avocado
- Dowling, Curtis F.; Morton, Julia Frances (1987). Fruits of warm climates. Miami, Fla: J.F. Morton. ISBN 0-9610184-1-0.
- Bates, Robert P. (1970). "HEAT-INDUCED OFF-FLAVOR IN AVOCADO FLESH". Journal of Food Science 35 (4): 478. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1970.tb00962.x.
- Zeldes, Leah A. (2010-06-02). "Eat this! The ‘Hass’ avocado, black and green and creamy". Dining Chicago. Chicago's Restaurant & Entertainment Guide, Inc. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
- Recipe for avocado ritz
- Delgado, Martin. "Sainsbury, M&S ... and the great ad-vocado war". Daily Mail.
[eedit | eedit soorce]
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Persea americana.|
|Wikibeuks Cuikbeuk haes a recipe/module on|
|Wikisource haes the text o the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica airticle Avocado Pear.|
- Definitive illustrated list of avocado varieties
- Purdue horticultural lecture on Avocados with pictures of cultivation from fertilization to harvest
- California Rare Fruit Growers, avocados beyond Persea americana
- Avocado Nutrition Information from USDA National Nutrient Database