Ethiopie

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Coordinates: 8°N 38°E / 8°N 38°E / 8; 38

Federal Democratic Republic o Ethiopie
የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ
yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk
Anthem: 
ወደፊት ገስግሺ፣ ውድ እናት ኢትዮጵያ
Mairch Forwart, Dear Mither Ethiopie
Location o Ethiopie
Location o Ethiopie
Caipital
an lairgest ceety
Addis Ababa
9°1′N 38°45′E / 9.017°N 38.750°E / 9.017; 38.750
Offeecial leids Amharic (federal)[1]
Wirkin leids Federation member leids
Regional leids
Releegion Christianity (62.8%)
Islam (33.9%)
tradeetional faiths (2.6%)
ithers (0.6%)[2]
Demonym Ethiopian
Govrenment Dominant pairty Federal pairlamentar republic
• Preses
Mulatu Teshome
Hailemariam Desalegn
Legislatur Federal Pairlamentary Assembly
Hoose o Federation
Hoose o Fowks' Representatives
Formation
• Dʿmt
c. 980 BC
c. 100 AD
1137
• Derg
1974
1987
August 1995
Aurie
• Tot
1,104,300 km2 (426,400 sq mi) (26t)
• Watter (%)
0.7
Population
• 2016 estimate
102,403,196[3] (12t)
• 2007 census
73,750,932[4]
• Density
92.7/km2 (240.1/sq mi) (123rd)
GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate
• Total
$216.449 billion[5]
• Per capita
$2,299.26[5]
GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate
• Total
$87.303 billion[5]
• Per capita
$927.39[5]
Gini (2011) negative increase 33.6[6]
medium
HDI (2015) Increase 0.448[7]
law · 174th
Siller Birr (ETB)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Cawin code +251
ISO 3166 code ET
Internet TLD .et

Ethiopie (/[unsupported input]ˌθiˈpiə/) (Ge'ez: ኢትዮጵያ ʾĪtyōṗṗyā) is a landlocked kintra locatit in the Horn o Africae, an offeecially kent as the Federal Democratic Republic o Ethiopie. It is the seicont-maist populous naition in Africae, wi ower 85.2 million fowk,[9] an the tent-lairgest bi aurie, wi its 1,100,000 km2. The caipital is Addis Ababa. Ethiopie is bordered bi Eritrea tae the north, Sudan tae the wast, Djibouti an Somalie tae the east, an Kenyae tae the sooth.

Ethiopia wis a monarchy for maist o its history, an the Ethiopian dynasty traces its roots tae the 2nt century BC.[10] Ethiopie is an aa ane o the auldest sites o human existence kent tae scientists the day, haein yieldit some o humanity's auldest traces.[11] It mey be the region frae which Homo sapiens first set oot for the Middle East an pynts ayont.[12][13][14] When Africae wis dividit up bi European pouers at the Berlin Conference, Ethiopie wis ane o anerlie twa kintras that retained its unthirldom. It wis ane o anerlie fower African members o the League o Naitions. Efter a brief period o Italian occupation, Ethiopie became a chairter member o the Unitit Naitions. When ither African naitions received thair unthrildom follaein Warld War II, mony o them adoptit the colors o Ethiopie's Banner, an Addis Ababa became the location o several internaitional organisations focused on Africae.

Modren Ethiopie an its current borders are a result o significant territorial reduction in the north an expansion in the sooth toward its present borders, awin tae several migrations an commercial integration as well as conquests, parteecularly bi Emperor Menelik II an Ras Gobena. In 1974, the dynasty led bi Emperor Haile Selassie wis owerthrown as ceevil wars intensified. Syne then, Ethiopie haes seen a variety o governmental seestems. Ethiopie is ane o the foondin members o the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), G-77 an the Organisation o African Unity (OAU). The day, Addis Ababa is still the heidquarter o the African Union, the Nile Basin Commission,[15] the Pan African Chamber o Commerce (PACCI) an[16] UNECA. The kintra haes ane o the maist pouerful militaries in Africae an Addis Ababa is the heidquarter o the continental African Standby Force (ASF). Ethiopie is ane o a few African kintras tae hae its awn alphabet.[17] Ethiopie an aa haes its awn time seestem an unique calendar, seiven tae aight years ahint the Gregorian Calendar. It haes the lairgest nummer o UNESCO Warld Heritage Sites in Africae.[18]

The kintra is a land o naitural contrasts, wi spectacular waterfalls an volcanic het springs. Ethiopie haes some o Africae's heichest muntains as well as some o the warld's lawest pynts belaw sea level. The lairgest cave in Africae is locatit in Ethiopie at Sof Omar, an the kintra's northernmost aurie at Dallol is ane o the hettest places year-roond onywhaur on Yird. Thare are aathgither aroond 80 different ethnic groups in Ethiopie the day, wi the twa lairgest bein the Oromo an the Amhara, baith o which speak Afro-Asiatic leids. The kintra is an aa famous for its Olympic gowd medallists, rock-hewn kirks an as the place whaur the coffee bean oreeginatit. Currently, Ethiopie is the tap coffee an honey-producin kintra in Africae, an hame tae the lairgest livestock population in Africae.

Ethiopie haes close historical ties tae aw three o the warld's major Abrahamic relegions. It wis ane o the first Christian kintras in the warld, haein offeecially adoptit Christianity as the state releegion in the 4t century. It still haes a Christian majority, but a third o the population is Muslim. Ethiopia is the site o the first hijra in Islamic history an the auldest Muslim dounset in Africae at Negash. Until the 1980s, a substantial population o Ethiopian Jews residit in Ethiopie. The kintra is an aa the spiritual hameland o the Rastafari releegious movement, that is influenced bi Pan-Africanism an haes globalized Ethiopian banner tricolors wi the spread o Reggae muisic alangside Hip hop cultur. Ethiopie, which haes Africae's seicont biggest hydropouer potential,[19] is the soorce o ower 85% o the tot Nile watter flow an contains rich soils, but it nivertheless unnerwent a series o famines in the 1980s, exacerbatit bi adverse geopolitics an ceevil wars, resultin in the daith o hunders o thoosans.[20] Slowly, housomivver, the kintra haes begun tae recover, an the day Ethiopia haes the biggest economy in East Africae (GDP)[21] as the Ethiopian economy is an aa ane o the fastest growin in the warld an it is a regional pouerhoose in the Horn an east Africae.[22][23][24][25]

Name[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Greek name Αἰθιοπία, appears twice in the Iliad an three times in the Odyssey.[26] The Greek historian Herodotus specifically uises it for aw the lands sooth o Egyp,[27] includin Sudan an modren Ethiopie. Αἰθιοπία, Aithiopia is frae Αἰθίοψ, Aithiops, ‘an Ethiopian’, derived in turn frae Greek wirds meanin "o burned face".[28]

The name Ethiopiee an aa occurs in mony translations o the Old Testament, but the Hebrew texts hae Kush, which refers foremaist tae Nubie / Sudan.[29] In the (Greek) New Testament, houiver, the Greek term Aithiops, ‘an Ethiopian’, daes occur,[30] referrin tae a servant o Candace or Kentakes, possibly an inhabitant o Meroe which wis later conquered bi the Kinrick o Axum. The earliest attested uise o the name Ityopya in the region itsel is as a name for the Kinrick o Aksum in the 4t century, in stone inscriptions o Keeng Ezana,[31] who first Christianized the entire apparatus o the kinrick.

Pliny the Elder[32] says the kintra's name comes frae a personal name Aethiops.

The Greek name wis adoptit intae Ge'ez, appearin in the 15t century Book of Aksum as ʾĪtyōṗṗyā. Aethiops appears as "'Ityopp'is", identified as a son (unmentioned in the Bible) o Cush, son o Ham, who accordin tae legend foondit the ceety o Axum.

In Inglis, an generally ootside Ethiopiee, the kintra wis an aa ance historically kent as Abyssinie, derived frae Habesh, an early Arabic form o the Ethiosemitic name "Ḥabaśāt" (unvocalized "ḤBŚT"). The modren form Habesha is the native name for the kintra's indwallers (while the kintra haes been cried "Ityopp'ya"). In a few leids, Ethiopie is still referred tae bi names cognate wi "Abyssinie," e.g., modren Arabic Al-Ḥabashah, meanin land o the Habasha fowk.

The term Habesha, strictly speakin, refers anerlie tae the Semitic-speakin groups, parteecularly the Amhara an Tigray-Tigrinya fowk who hae historically dominatit the kintra poleetically, as well as the Gurage an ither smawer communities lik the Harari o eastren Ethiopie. Housomeivver, in contemporary Ethiopie, the wird Habesha is whiles uised tae describe aw Ethiopians an Eritreans. Abyssinie can strictly refer tae juist the northwastren Ethiopian provinces o Amhara an Tigray, as well as central Eritrea, while it wis historically uised as anither name for Ethiopie.[33]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Article 5" (PDF). Ethiopian Constitution. WIPO. Retrieved 2 Julie 2015. 
  2. Abegaz, Berhanu (Juin 1, 2005). "Ethiopia: A Model Nation of Minorities" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-07-27. 
  3. "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017. 
  4. "Country Level". 2007 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia. CSA. 13 Julie 2010. Retrieved 18 Januar 2013. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: Ethiopia". World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund. October 2017. Retrieved 2017-10-26. 
  6. Selima., Jāhāna, (2015). Work for human development (PDF). Human Development Report. United Nations Development Programme. ISBN 9789211263985. OCLC 936070939. 
  7. "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 Mairch 2017. 
  8. "Ethiopia". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 11 Juin 2017. 
  9. "Ethiopia, Africa's second most-populous country". Nctimes.com. 2007-05-30. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  10. Speakin efter his signin the disputit treaty atween Ethiopie an Italy in 1889, Emperor Menelik II made clear his position: "We cannae permit oor integrity as a Christian an ceevilized naition tae be questioned, nor the richt tae govern oor empire in absolute unthrildom. The Emperor o Ethiopie is a descendant o a dynasty that is 3,000 years auld — a dynasty that durin aw that time haes niver submittit tae an ootsider. Ethiopie haes niver been conquered an she niver shall be conquered bi onyane." Ethiopia Unbound: Studies In Race Emancipation - p. xxv by Joseph Ephraim Casely Hayford
  11. "Ethiopia is top choice for cradle of Homo sapiens". Nature. 16 Februar 2005. Archived frae the oreeginal on December 15, 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  12. Li, J. Z.; Absher, DM; Tang, H; Southwick, AM; Casto, AM; Ramachandran, S; Cann, HM; Barsh, GS; Feldman, M (2008). "Worldwide Human Relationships Inferred from Genome-Wide Patterns of Variation". Science. 319 (5866): 1100–1104. doi:10.1126/science.1153717. PMID 18292342.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  13. "Humans Moved From Africa Across Globe, DNA Study Says". Bloomberg.com. 2008-02-21. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  14. By KAREN KAPLAN, Los Angeles Times (2008-02-21). "Around the world from Addis Ababa". Startribune.com. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  15. Simon, Ben (2010-05-14). "Nile Basin Commission". Google.com. Archived frae the oreeginal on 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  16. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa UNECA
  17. "the only African country with its own alphabet". Irinnews.org. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  18. "World Heritage List – Africa". UNESCO. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 
  19. Davison, William (2010-07-15). "Ethiopia Africa's second biggest hydropower". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2010-12-12. 
  20. "History of Conflict and Conservation: 1961-1991". Worldwildlife.org. 1974-09-12. Retrieved 2010-12-12. 
  21. "Ethiopia surpasses Kenya to become East Africa's Biggest Economy". Nazret.com. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  22. No Author. "Ethiopia has fastest growing non-Oil Economy in Africa – IMF". Jimmatimes.com. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  23. "Ethiopia will be 5th fastest growing economy in the world in 2010 - economist". Export.by. 2009-11-25. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  24. Ethiopia regional powerhouse[deid airtin]
  25. "CSIS on Ethiopia regional power". Csis.org. 2007-01-22. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  26. Histories, book 2, chapters 29 and 146; book 3 chapter 17 Odyssey, book 1, lines 22-23; book 4, line 84
  27. Histories, II, 29-30; III, 114; IV, 197
  28. "Aithiops, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, ''A Greek-English Lexicon'', at Perseus". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  29. Cp. Ezekiel 29:10
  30. Acts 8:27
  31. Munro Hay 1991
  32. Nat. Hist. 6.184–187
  33. "Abyssinia - LoveToKnow 1911". 1911encyclopedia.org. 2006-10-22. Retrieved 2009-03-16.