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Coordinates: 8°N 38°E / 8°N 38°E / 8; 38

Federal Democratic Republic o Ethiopie

የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ
yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk
[ወደፊት ገስግሺ፣ ውድ እናት ኢትዮጵያ] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
Mairch Forwart, Dear Mither Ethiopie
Location o Ethiopie
Location o Ethiopie
and largest city
Addis Ababa
9°1′N 38°45′E / 9.017°N 38.750°E / 9.017; 38.750
Offeecial leidsAmharic (federal)[1]
Wirkin leidsFederation member leids
Christianity (62.8%)
Islam (33.9%)
tradeetional faiths (2.6%)
ithers (0.6%)[2]
GovrenmentDominant pairty Federal pairlamentar republic
• Preses
Sahle-Work Zewde
Abiy Ahmed Ali
LegislaturFederal Pairlamentary Assembly
Hoose o Federation
Hoose o Fowks' Representatives
• Dʿmt
c. 980 BC
c. 100 AD
• Derg
August 1995
• Total
1,104,300 km2 (426,400 sq mi) (26t)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
102,403,196[3] (12t)
• 2007 census
• Density
92.7/km2 (240.1/sq mi) (123rd)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$216.449 billion[5]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Tot
$87.303 billion[5]
• Per capita
Gini (2011)negative increase 33.6[6]
HDI (2015)Increase 0.448[7]
law · 174th
CurrencyBirr (ETB)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
Drivin sideright
Cawin code+251
ISO 3166 codeET
Internet TLD.et
Territorial organization

Ethiopie (/[unsupported input]ˌθiˈpiə/) (Ge'ez: ኢትዮጵያ ʾĪtyōṗṗyā) is a landlocked kintra locatit in the Horn o Africae, an offeecially kent as the Federal Democratic Republic o Ethiopie. It is the seicont-maist populous naition in Africae, wi ower 85.2 million fowk,[9] an the tent-lairgest bi aurie, wi its 1,100,000 km2. The caipital is Addis Ababa. Ethiopie is bordered bi Eritrea tae the north, Sudan and Sooth Sudan tae the wast, Djibouti an Somalie tae the east, an Kenyae tae the sooth.

Ethiopie wis a monarchy for maist o its history, an the Ethiopian dynasty traces its roots tae the 2nt century BC.[10] Ethiopie is an aa ane o the auldest sites o human existence kent tae scientists the day, haein yieldit some o humanity's auldest traces.[11] It mey be the region frae which Homo sapiens first set oot for the Middle East an pynts ayont.[12][13][14] When Africae wis dividit up bi European pouers at the Berlin Conference, Ethiopie wis ane o anerlie twa kintras that retained its unthirldom. It wis ane o anerlie fower African members o the League o Naitions. Efter a brief period o Italian occupation, Ethiopie became a chairter member o the Unitit Naitions. When ither African naitions received thair unthrildom follaein Warld War II, mony o them adoptit the colors o Ethiopie's Banner, an Addis Ababa became the location o several internaitional organisations focused on Africae.

Modren Ethiopie an its current mairches are a result o significant territorial reduction in the north an expansion in the sooth taewart its present mairches, awin tae several migrations an commercial integration as weel as conquests, parteecularly bi Emperor Menelik II an Ras Gobena. In 1974, the dynasty led bi Emperor Haile Selassie wis owerthrawn as ceevil wars intensified. Syne then, Ethiopie haes seen a variety o govrenmental seestems. Ethiopie is ane o the foondin members o the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), G-77 an the Organisation o African Unity (OAU). The day, Addis Ababa is still the heidquarter o the African Union, the Nile Basin Commission,[15] the Pan African Chamber o Commerce (PACCI) an[16] UNECA. The kintra haes ane o the maist pouerful militaries in Africae an Addis Ababa is the heidquarter o the continental African Standby Force (ASF). Ethiopie is ane o a few African kintras tae hae its awn alphabet.[17] Ethiopie an aa haes its awn time seestem an unique calendar, seiven tae aight years ahint the Gregorian Calendar. It haes the lairgest nummer o UNESCO Warld Heritage Sites in Africae.[18]

The kintra is a land o naitural contrasts, wi spectacular waterfalls an volcanic het springs. Ethiopie haes some o Africae's heichest muntains as well as some o the warld's lawest pynts belaw sea level. The lairgest cave in Africae is locatit in Ethiopie at Sof Omar, an the kintra's northernmost aurie at Dallol is ane o the hettest places year-roond onywhaur on Yird. Thare are aathgither aroond 80 different ethnic groups in Ethiopie the day, wi the twa lairgest bein the Oromo an the Amhara, baith o which speak Afro-Asiatic leids. The kintra is an aa famous for its Olympic gowd medallists, rock-hewn kirks an as the place whaur the coffee bean oreeginatit. Currently, Ethiopie is the tap coffee an honey-producin kintra in Africae, an hame tae the lairgest livestock population in Africae.

Ethiopie haes close historical ties tae aw three o the warld's major Abrahamic relegions. It wis ane o the first Christian kintras in the warld, haein offeecially adoptit Christianity as the state releegion in the 4t century. It still haes a Christian majority, but a third o the population is Muslim. Ethiopia is the site o the first hijra in Islamic history an the auldest Muslim dounset in Africae at Negash. Until the 1980s, a substantial population o Ethiopian Jews residit in Ethiopie. The kintra is an aa the spiritual hameland o the Rastafari releegious movement, that is influenced bi Pan-Africanism an haes globalized Ethiopian banner tricolors wi the spread o Reggae muisic alangside Hip hop cultur. Ethiopie, which haes Africae's seicont biggest hydropouer potential,[19] is the soorce o ower 85% o the tot Nile watter flow an contains rich soils, but it nivertheless unnerwent a series o famines in the 1980s, exacerbatit bi adverse geopolitics an ceevil wars, resultin in the daith o hunders o thoosans.[20] Slowly, housomivver, the kintra haes begun tae recover, an the day Ethiopia haes the biggest economy in East Africae (GDP)[21] as the Ethiopian economy is an aa ane o the fastest growin in the warld an it is a regional pouerhoose in the Horn an east Africae.[22][23][24][25]

The Greek name Αἰθιοπία, appears twice in the Iliad an three times in the Odyssey.[26] The Greek historian Herodotus specifically uises it for aw the lands sooth o Egyp,[27] includin Sudan an modren Ethiopie. Αἰθιοπία, Aithiopia is frae Αἰθίοψ, Aithiops, ‘an Ethiopian’, derived in turn frae Greek wirds meanin "o burned face".[28]

The name Ethiopiee an aa occurs in mony translations o the Old Testament, but the Hebrew texts hae Kush, which refers foremaist tae Nubie / Sudan.[29] In the (Greek) New Testament, houiver, the Greek term Aithiops, ‘an Ethiopian’, daes occur,[30] referrin tae a servant o Candace or Kentakes, possibly an inhabitant o Meroe which wis later conquered bi the Kinrick o Axum. The earliest attested uise o the name Ityopya in the region itsel is as a name for the Kinrick o Aksum in the 4t century, in stone inscriptions o Keeng Ezana,[31] who first Christianized the entire apparatus o the kinrick.

Pliny the Elder[32] says the kintra's name comes frae a personal name Aethiops.

The Greek name wis adoptit intae Ge'ez, appearin in the 15t century Book of Aksum as ʾĪtyōṗṗyā. Aethiops appears as "'Ityopp'is", identified as a son (unmentioned in the Bible) o Cush, son o Ham, who accordin tae legend foondit the ceety o Axum.

In Inglis, an generally ootside Ethiopiee, the kintra wis an aa ance historically kent as Abyssinie, derived frae Habesh, an early Arabic form o the Ethiosemitic name "Ḥabaśāt" (unvocalized "ḤBŚT"). The modren form Habesha is the native name for the kintra's indwallers (while the kintra haes been cried "Ityopp'ya"). In a few leids, Ethiopie is still referred tae bi names cognate wi "Abyssinie," e.g., modren Arabic Al-Ḥabashah, meanin land o the Habasha fowk.

The term Habesha, strictly speakin, refers anerlie tae the Semitic-speakin groups, parteecularly the Amhara an Tigray-Tigrinya fowk who hae historically dominatit the kintra poleetically, as well as the Gurage an ither smawer communities lik the Harari o eastren Ethiopie. Housomeivver, in contemporary Ethiopie, the wird Habesha is whiles uised tae describe aw Ethiopians an Eritreans. Abyssinie can strictly refer tae juist the northwastren Ethiopian provinces o Amhara an Tigray, as well as central Eritrea, while it wis historically uised as anither name for Ethiopie.[33]


[eedit | eedit soorce]
  1. "Article 5" (PDF). Ethiopian Constitution. WIPO. Retrieved 2 Julie 2015.
  2. Abegaz, Berhanu (1 Juin 2005). "Ethiopia: A Model Nation of Minorities" (PDF). Retrieved 27 Julie 2017. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  4. "Country Level". 2007 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia. CSA. 13 Julie 2010. Archived frae the original on 8 Februar 2019. Retrieved 18 Januar 2013.
  5. a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: Ethiopia". World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund. October 2017. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  6. Selima., Jāhāna, (2015). Work for human development (PDF). Human Development Report. United Nations Development Programme. ISBN 9789211263985. OCLC 936070939.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  7. "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 Mairch 2017.
  8. "Ethiopia". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived frae the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 11 Juin 2017.
  9. "Ethiopia, Africa's second most-populous country". Nctimes.com. 30 Mey 2007. Retrieved 2 Juin 2010.
  10. Speakin efter his signin the disputit treaty atween Ethiopie an Italy in 1889, Emperor Menelik II made clear his position: "We cannae permit oor integrity as a Christian an ceevilized naition tae be questioned, nor the richt tae govern oor empire in absolute unthrildom. The Emperor o Ethiopie is a descendant o a dynasty that is 3,000 year auld — a dynasty that durin aw that time haes niver submittit tae an ootsider. Ethiopie haes niver been conquered an she niver shall be conquered bi onyane." Ethiopia Unbound: Studies In Race Emancipation - p. xxv by Joseph Ephraim Casely Hayford
  11. "Ethiopia is top choice for cradle of Homo sapiens". Nature. 16 Februar 2005. Archived frae the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 2 Februar 2008.
  12. Li, J. Z.; Absher, DM; Tang, H; Southwick, AM; Casto, AM; Ramachandran, S; Cann, HM; Barsh, GS; Feldman, M (2008). "Worldwide Human Relationships Inferred from Genome-Wide Patterns of Variation". Science. 319 (5866): 1100–1104. doi:10.1126/science.1153717. PMID 18292342. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  13. "Humans Moved From Africa Across Globe, DNA Study Says". Bloomberg.com. 21 Februar 2008. Retrieved 16 Mairch 2009.
  14. By KAREN KAPLAN, Los Angeles Times (21 Februar 2008). "Around the world from Addis Ababa". Startribune.com. Archived frae the original on 25 Februar 2008. Retrieved 16 Mairch 2009.
  15. Simon, Ben (14 Mey 2010). "Nile Basin Commission". Google.com. Archived frae the original on 27 Mey 2010. Retrieved 2 Juin 2010.
  16. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa UNECA
  17. "the only African country with its own alphabet". Irinnews.org. Retrieved 2 Juin 2010.
  18. "World Heritage List – Africa". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  19. Davison, William (15 Julie 2010). "Ethiopia Africa's second biggest hydropower". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
  20. "History of Conflict and Conservation: 1961-1991". Worldwildlife.org. 12 September 1974. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
  21. "Ethiopia surpasses Kenya to become East Africa's Biggest Economy". Nazret.com. Archived frae the original on 30 Mairch 2010. Retrieved 2 Juin 2010.
  22. No Author. "Ethiopia has fastest growing non-Oil Economy in Africa – IMF". Jimmatimes.com. Archived frae the original on 29 Apryle 2011. Retrieved 2 Juin 2010.
  23. "Ethiopia will be 5th fastest growing economy in the world in 2010 - economist". Export.by. 25 November 2009. Archived frae the original on 13 Mey 2011. Retrieved 2 Juin 2010.
  24. Ethiopia regional powerhouse[deid airtin]
  25. "CSIS on Ethiopia regional power". Csis.org. 22 Januar 2007. Archived frae the original on 9 Februar 2010. Retrieved 2 Juin 2010.
  26. Histories, book 2, chapters 29 and 146; book 3 chapter 17 Odyssey, book 1, lines 22-23; book 4, line 84
  27. Histories, II, 29-30; III, 114; IV, 197
  28. "Aithiops, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, ''A Greek-English Lexicon'', at Perseus". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 16 Mairch 2009.
  29. Cp. Ezekiel 29:10
  30. Acts 8:27
  31. Munro Hay 1991
  32. Nat. Hist. 6.184–187
  33. "Abyssinia - LoveToKnow 1911". 1911encyclopedia.org. 22 October 2006. Retrieved 16 Mairch 2009.