Somalie

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Federal Republic o Somalie[1]
Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya (so)
جمهورية الصومال الفدرالية (ar)
Jumhūriyyat aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fiderāliyya
Banner o Somalie
Coat o airms o Somalie
Banner Coat o airms
Location o  Somalie  (dark blue)– in Africa  (light blue & dark grey)– in the African Union  (light blue)
Location o  Somalie  (dark blue)

– in Africa  (light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union  (light blue)

Location o Somalie
Capital
an lairgest ceety
Mogadishu
2°2′N 45°21′E / 2.033°N 45.350°E / 2.033; 45.350
Offeecial leids
Ethnic groups
Demonym
Govrenment Federal pairlamentar republic
• Preses
Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed
Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke
Legislatur Federal Pairlament
Formation
c. 200 BCE
10t century
13t century
13t century
18t century
1884
1889
• Union, Independence an Constitution
1 July 1960[3]
25 August 1979[3]
1 August 2012
Aurie
• Tot
637,657 km2 (246,201 sq mi) (44t)
Population
• 2014 estimate
10,428,043[3] (86t)
• Density
16.12[5]/km2 (41.8/sq mi) (199t)
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate
• Total
$5.896 billion[3] (163rd)
• Per capita
$600[3] (224t)
Siller Somali shilling (SOS)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
• Summer (DST)
no observit (UTC+3)
Drives on the richt
Cawin code +252
Internet TLD .so

Somalie (pronounced /soʊˈmɑːliə/ (deprecatit template) soh-MAH-lee-ə; Somali: Soomaaliya; Arabic: الصومال‎‎ aṣ-Ṣūmāl), offeecially the Federal Republic o Somalie (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya, Arabic: جمهورية الصومال الفدرالية‎‎ Jumhūriyyat aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fiderāliyya), is a kintra situate in the Horn o Africae. It is bordered bi Djibouti tae the northwast, Kenyae tae the soothwast, the Gulf o Aden wi Yemen tae the north, the Indie Ocean tae the aest, an Ethiopie tae the wast. Wi the langest coastline on the continent, its terrain consists mainly o plateaus, plains an Hielands.

In antiquity, Somalie wis a important centre for commerce wi the rest o the auncient warld. Its sailors an merchants war the main suppleers o frankincense, myrrh an spices, items that war considered valuable luxuries bi the Auncient Egyptians, Phoenicies, Mycenaeans an Babylonians wi whom the Somali fowk tradit. The auncient Puntites war a naition o fowk that haed close relations wi Pharaonic Egyp durin the times o Pharaoh Sahure an Queen Hatshepsut. The pyramidal structures, temples an auncient hooses o dressed stane littered aroon the kintra are said tae date frae this period. Durin the Middle Ages, several pouerfou Somali empires dominatit the regional trade, includin the Ajuuraan State, the Sultanate o Adal, the Warsangali Sultanate an the Gobroon Dynasty.

Somalie wis never formally colonized. Muhammad Abdullah Hassan's Dervish State successfully repulsed the Breetish Empire fower times an forced it tae retreat tae the coastal region. Due tae thir successfu expeditions, the Dervish State wis recognised as an ally bi the Ottoman an German Empires. The Turks an aa named Hassan Emir o the Somali naition, an the Germans promised tae offeecially recognise ony territories the Dervishes wur tae acquire. Efter a quarter o a century o haudin the Breetish at bay, the Dervishes war finally defeatit in 1920 as a direct consequence o Breetain's new policy o aerial bombardment. As a result o this bombardment, umwhile Dervish territories war turned intae a protectorate o Breetain. Italy faced seemilar opposition frae Somali Sultans an armies, an did nae acquire full control o pairts o modren Somalie til the Fascist era in late 1927. This occupation lasted til 1941, an wis replaced bi a Breetish militar admeenistration. Northren Somalie wad remain a protectorate, while soothren Somalie became a trusteeship. The Union o the twa regions in 1960 formed the Somali Republic. A civilian govrenment wis formed, an on 20 Julie 1961, throuch a popular referendum, a new constitution that haed first been drafted the year afore wis ratified.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. The Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the Provisional Constitution.
  2. "The Federal Republic of Somalia – Provisional Constitution" (PDF). Archived frae the original (PDF) on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 13 Mairch 2013. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 "Somalia". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. 
  4. Paul Dickson (15 August 2006). Labels for Locals : What to Call People from Abilene to Zimbabwe (1st Collins ed.). New York: HarperCollins. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-06-088164-1. 
  5. CIA World Factbook 2011 – Population density. Photius.com (2011-05-25). Retrieved on 2011-12-15.